Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) All cells share certain characteristics: • Cells tend to be microscopic.
cell membrane Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) All cells share certain characteristics: • Cells tend to be microscopic. • All cells are enclosed by a membrane.
cell membrane cytoplasm Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) All cells share certain characteristics • Cells tend to be microscopic. • All cells are enclosed by a membrane. • All cells are filled with cytoplasm.
Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) Cytoplasm: is a jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks- such as proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, and ions
nucleus organelles cell membrane • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. • The nucleus holds the DNA • Have membrane-bound organelles • May be multi-cellular or single-celled organisms
Organelles: structures that are specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell. The nucleus is usually the largest and most visible organelle.
Things that have Eukaryotic Cells: PLANTS ANIMALS FUNGI
cytoplasm • Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. • do not have membrane-bound organelles • DNA is in the cytoplasm • All are microscopic, single-celled organisms • Ex: Bacteria • Salmonella • E. Coli cell membrane
Viruses • Virus- An infective agent that typically consists of a DNA or RNA strand in a protein coat. • multiply onlywithin the living cells of a host • Antibiotics will not work on them • Vaccines prevent them Protein Coat EX: Herpes virus Influenza Chickenpox Ebola virus
There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum. • rough endoplasmicreticulum Have bumps called ribosomeswhich link amino acids together to form proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum Makes lipids and performs specialized functions such as breaking down drugs and alcohol.
Golgi apparatus-processes, sorts, and delivers proteins to different parts of the cell Ex: like a post office
Mitochondriasupply energy to the cell. • Chemical reactions take place that convert the molecules you eat into usable energy
Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy. They carry out photosynthesis *Only in plants
granum (stack of thylakoids) 1 chloroplast sunlight 2 6H2O 6O2 energy thylakoid stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) 1 six-carbon sugar 6CO2 C6H12O6 3 4 REACTANTS PRODUCTS Energy from sunlight is absorbed Water molecules broken down Oxygen is released Carbon Dioxide enters Calvin Cycle Builds sugar 1 six-carbon sugar is produced
1 mitochondrion ATP matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) and 6CO 2 energy 2 3 energy from glycolysis inner membrane ATP and and 2 6H O 2 6O 4 REACTANTS PRODUCTS Three carbon molecules from glycolysis enter mitochondria Krebs Cycle transports electrons to ETC Energy and CO2 released Energy from glycolysis and Krebs enter Stage 2 with Oxygen ATP molecules produced Heat and water are released
The Cell membrane (pg. 81-84 in book) Pg. 59 in INB Please draw a picture bubble map of the cell membrane Label: Phospholipids Phospholipid parts Outside and Inside of cell Proteins Protein Channel • What are the 2 major functions of the cell membrane? • What are the two parts of a phospholipid? • Which part of a phospholipid is polar and nonpolar and what does that mean? • What does selectively permeable mean?
Draw and label a detailed flow map of the process of Meiosis Meiosis I Pg. 173-176 in book Meiosis II • Which type of cells undergo meiosis? • What are the sex chromosomes? • Which sex chromosomes code for a female? Male? • What are gametes (sex cells)? Pg. 60 in INB
Please draw a detailed tree map of Mendel’s Two Laws • Law of Segregation (Pg. 177-179) • Law of Independent Assortment (183-187) • Must have: • Definition • How Mendel discovered the Law • Picture that represents the Law Pg. 61 in INB