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    1. Come to the Back and Check out a Text

    3. Two Main Forms of Cells All cells share certain characteristics They are all enclosed by a membrane They all use DNA as genetic information There are two main forms of cells: Eukaryotic Prokaryotic

    12. Bacteria Domain Unicellular, Prokaryotic Cell Wall- made of peptidoglycan Cell Membrane- unbranched fatty chains Sensitive to antibiotics (different kind of ribosome) Circular Chromosome Cannot tolerate extreme temperatures. (> 100 C)

    13. Archaea Domain Unicellular, Prokaryotic Cell Wall- no peptidoglycan. Cell Membrane- branched fatty chains. Not sensitive to antibiotics (different kind of ribosome) Circular Chromosome Grow in extreme environ. (Extremophiles- thermophiles and halophiles)

    16. Bacteria Kingdom Unicellular, Prokaryote Peptidoglycan Cell Wall Nutrition- Autotroph and Heterotrophic Motility- may have bacterial flagella Asexual Reprod. And Conjugation No nervous system Examples: E. coli, Salmonella, etc.

    17. Archaea Kingdom Unicellular, Prokaryote No peptidoglycan in cell wall, muramic acid Nutrition- Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Motility- Different Kind of Bacterial Flagella Asexual Reprod. And Conjugation No nervous system Examples: Methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles

    18. Protista Kingdom Mostly Uni- but some multicellular Eukaryotes Various Types of Cell Wall, no peptidoglycan Nutrition- Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Motility- (9 + 2) Cilia or flagella Meiosis and Fertilization Nervous system- primitive conduction of some stimuli (light, heat, etc.) Ex. : Paramecia, Amoeba, Euglena

    19. Fungi Kingdom Mostly multi, some unicellular Eukaryotes Chitin Cell Wall Nutrition- Heterotrophic Nonmotile Meiosis and Fertilization No nervous system Ex.: molds, mushrooms, mildew

    20. Animalia Kingdom Multicellular, Eukaryote No cell wall Nutrition- Heterotrophic Motility- (9 + 2) Cilia or flagella Meiosis and Fertilization Primitive and complex nervous systems Ex. : worms, fish, birds, YOU!

    21. Plantae Kingdom Multicellular Eukaryote Cell Wall Cellulose Nutrition Autotroph Most cells are nonmotile, but some make reproductive cells that have (9 + 2) flagella Meiosis and Fertilization No nervous system Meiosis and Fertilization Ex. : Trees, shrubs, Venus Fly Trap!

    23. Question of the Day! Who was the first microbiologist?

    24. Holy Moses! Instructed people to bury feces and other wastes. Bible also refers to isolating lepers. (Deuteronomy, Ch. 13)

    25. Hippocrates Greek physician in 400 B.C. who established medical ethics. Linked symptoms to certain diseases. Realized diseases could be transmitted by clothing.

    26. Bubonic Plague (Black Death) 542-1600s, spread into Europe by caravan and sea trading routes. Carried by fleas on ship rats.

    28. Xenopsylla cheopis

    30. Show me more of the Black Death! Video: Secrets of the Dead- The Mystery of the Black Death

    32. Bubonic and Septicemic Plague

    33. The First Case of Biological Weapons? Caffa

    34. Flagellism and Anti-Semitism

    35. Robert Hooke In 17th Century, built the first microscope. Used the term cell to describe what he saw--after the small rooms of monks.

    37. Hookes First Microscope

    38. Anton von Leewenhoek

    39. Leewenhoek From 1632-1723, he designed microscopes. Described animalcules Never sold his microscopes, microbiology didnt advance for 100 yrs.

    40. Schleiden and Schwann Formulated the Cell Theory- that cells are the fundamental units of all life.

    41. Germ Theory Mid-19th Century: Microorganisms can invade other organisms and cause disease.

    42. Spontaneous Generation Belief that life arose from nonliving things, a vital force found in the air. Ex: Broth turning cloudy happened spontaneously from nonliving material. Ex: Rags? rats Meat ? maggots.

    45. Francesco Redi, 1626-1697

    47. Francesco Redi Disproved spontaneous generation with the fly and rotting meat experiment.

    48. John Needham, 1713-1781

    49. Needham and Vital Atoms Needham and Georges Comte de Buffon proposed vital atoms cause life. They could be seen in pond water and infusions. Vital atoms escape dying organic material and move into the soil or water to be taken up the the plants.

    50. Lazzaro Spallanzani, 1729-1799

    52. Needham and others vitalists reply Argue the experiment only proves that spontaneous generation requires air. Need the vital force. Even Spallanzani agrees in some cases- regeneration and other cases of microbes.

    53. Salamander Limb Regeneration

    54. What Spallanzani Might Have Seen!

    55. Louis Pasteur

    56. Pasteur and Tyndall In the mid-1800s, disproved spontaneous generation using experiments with swan-necked flasks--allowed the air with the vital force to enter.

    57. Pasteurs Swan-necked Flask Experiment

    59. Pasteur and the Swan-Necked Flask

    60. Louis Pasteur From 1822-1895 Developed pasteurization technique of heating wine to kill other microorganisms without killing yeast. Developed first rabies vaccine- from rabbit spinal cord

    62. Robert Koch

    63. Robert Koch Developed techniques for isolating bacteria and growing in vitro (out of the body) Developed different medias for growing cultures.

    64. Kochs Postulates

    65. Kochs Postulates 1.) The specific pathogen (disease-causing) organism must be found in all cases of the disease. 2.) The pathogen must be isolated.

    66. Kochs Postulates 3.) Must inoculate a healthy animal with the pathogen and cause the disease. 4.) Must recover the same pathogen from the inoculated animal.

    67. Still use Kochs Postulates Today! The Story of Lyme Disease-Borrelia burgdorferi Video: Parasites-The Body Snatchers, #96

    68. Ignaz Semmelweis-The Father of Sanitary Practices

    69. Ignaz Semmelweis 1800s, Autopsy to child birth; puerperal (childbed) fever. Encouraged sanitary practices by physicians. Ridiculed, had a nervous breakdown, asylum and died of an infection.

    70. Joseph Lister Developed aseptic technique for surgeons Used carbolic acid to sterilize instruments.

    71. The First Vaccines Came Out of an Epidemic! The Story of Smallpox Video: Plagues: The Smallpox Curse, #36

    72. Smallpox Skin Lesions

    73. How Do We Protect Ourselves? Immunology Ancient Chinese- inhaled ground smallpox scabs--develop a mild case of smallpox but survive later exposure.

    74. Smallpox and Edward Jenner In late 1100s, smallpox had been carried back to Europe with the Crusaders from the Near East. Late 1700s, Jenner realized milkmaids with cowpox did not get smallpox. First tested vaccine (vacca means cow) against smallpox.

    75. Sarah Nelmes- Cow Pox Lesion and James Phipps

    76. Edward Jenner- Ethics are Relative?

    77. Eli Metchnikoff In the 1880s, discovered that the human body has cells which can ingest microbes. Called them phagocytes or cell-eating.

    78. Virology and Beijerinck Called microbes that could pass through filters viruses. Established that they needed host cells for their own replication.

    79. Viruses and Cancer Rous discovered that certain viruses can cause cancer. Won the Nobel Prize in 1966. Human Papilloma Virus- warts and cervical cancer.

    80. Viruses and Cancer Human Hepatitis B virus Can cause liver cancer.