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Cells and System. Moose, Harshil , Harsh and Darsh. Common Characteristics of Living Things. Living organisms come in all shapes and sizes and although they look different, they have many characteristics that are common. Some of the common characteristics of living organisms are:

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    1. Cells and System Moose, Harshil, Harsh and Darsh

    2. Common Characteristics of Living Things • Living organisms come in all shapes and sizes and although they look different, they have many characteristics that are common. Some of the common characteristics of living organisms are: • Living organisms need energy. • Living organisms respond and adapt to their environment . • Living organisms reproduce. • Living organisms grow. • Living organisms produce wastes. • Exchange of Gases. • Need Food. • Need Suitable Habitat. • Need Water.

    3. Energy • Energy is needed to carry out all of the other functions necessary for life. • Animals get this energy from eating plants and other animals. • Most plants use the energy of the Sun to make their own food. Plants get this energy from the sunwhich they use with Carbon Dioxide and Water to create oxygen and food (sugars).

    4. Environment • All living things need to interact with their environment in order to survive and reproduce. • Plants need light to make food, which they get from the environment. • Animals and other organism adapt to the environment , like a bat would have adaptation like ears that help them find their way in the night time.

    5. Reproduction • All living things reproduce, if the majority of a species do not reproduce the species will die out. • Living organisms reproduce so that life can continue. A wolf has pups. A watermelon has seeds.

    6. Growth • All living things start out small and undeveloped and become larger and more complex. All organism might not be able to grow at the same rate.

    7. Produce Wastes • Wastes are by-products of the other functions. They can be poisonous to the organism and therefore must be removed. • Waste can be removed in many forms.

    8. Needs of Living Things • Exchange of Gases: Living things need to be able to exchange gasses to survive. Plants need Carbon Dioxide so they can create oxygen and sugars through photosynthesis. Animals breathe in Oxygen and release Carbon Dioxide like humans. • Food: All living things need food. Food is a form of energy and energy is needed to carry out all of the other functions necessary for life. • Suitable Habitat: Living things need an habitat to find food, water, mate and etc. Some animals defend a large territory or roam over a large range. Other animals only need a small amount of space and can tolerate close neighbors. Habitat provides protection from predators and weather. • Water: All living things require liquid water to stay hydrated.

    9. What is the basic unit of all living things? • The basic unit of every living thing is the cell. The cell is the basic structural unit of living organisms and the building block of life. • The cell is a feature that separates most forms of life from living and non-living things. All living organisms are made up of cells. The cell is the smallest thing that is considered to be alive. So the cell is another biological characteristic that all living organism share. • Cell is the structural and functional unit of all of the living things either plants or animals. Cell is a very small unit which can vary in size depending upon the organisms like animal cell is bigger than the bacterial cells.

    10. What is cell theory? • Two German scientists (Matthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann) who studied cells combined their observations and created a hypothesis that all living things are made up of cells and a cell is the basic unit of life, because the the functions carried out by living things are also carried out by all the individual cells. German scientist Rudolf Virchow contributed his observation and together a hypothesis was created known as the Cell Theory. • Two important points of this theory are: • All living things are composed of one or more cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms.

    11. Multicellular and Unicellular Organisms • Organisms can be classified as unicellular organism ( organisms that are composed of only one cell ; including most bacteria). • Organisms can also be categorized as multi-cellular organisms which include most plant and animals. • Humans are multi-cellular organisms that contain about 10 trillion cells. • Most plant and animal cells are between 1 and 100 µm (micrometer) and therefore are visible only under the microscope. • Examples of unicellular organisms include : bacteria, algae, amoeba, fungus or any other micro-organism. • Examples of multi-cellular organisms include: human beings, lions, monkeys, hippopotamuses, elephants, tigers, mice, trees, mushrooms and etc.

    12. Non-Cellular Organism • There are various organisms who do not have cells because they are non-cellular and come in very primitive group of living organisms like viruses. • Non-cellular life is life which exists without a cell structure. Until the 21st century, people generally accepted that in order to be considered a life form, an organism had to have a cell. This excluded things like viruses from a list of living organisms. In recent research it has been suggested that things such as viruses could actually be considered life form. While people had suggested that viruses had many traits associated with life, it wasn't until 2003 that researchers discovered a virus with protein-making capabilities. The ability to create proteins is considered a key factor in determining whether or not an organism is alive. • One day researchers might find more viruses capable of producing proteins. This would suggest that viruses are non-cellular life that exists on Earth. • In addition to viruses, structures such as cosmids, viroids, fosmids, prions, phagemids, and transposons are also considered to be non-cellular life. • Scientist are not sure if they could consider viruses as a living organism, which is why there is a common belief that all living organisms are made of cells. If viruses and other such structures are considered as living things that non-cellular life exists on Earth.

    13. Eukaryotic Cells • Eukaryote are organisms that have a cell nucleus as well as organized cell structures. The DNA of a Eukaryote is housed in the nucleus and organized within chromosomes. Eukaryotes are both multicellular and unicellular. All animals including humans are Eukaryotes. There are 4 categories of Eukaryotes including, plant, fungi, and protists and animals.

    14. Prokaryotic Cells • Prokaryotesare organisms that are made up of cells that don't have the cell nucleus and do not have nay organized cell structure inside a living cell. The cell nucleus is usually the place where DNA is housed but for prokaryotes DNA is housed through the nucleoid and thus making it less organized than Eukaryotes as DNA is a loop. A large majority of Prokaryotes are single celled organisms but there are all multi-celled organisms. There are 2 groups of Prokaryotes. Archaea are micro organisms that live in extreme conditions that other organisms could not survive and Archae produce methane gas as a waste product and they don't need sunlight or oxygen for photosynthesis and the absorb either Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, or Hydrogen sulfide . Bacteria as similar to Archae and are single celled organisms. Bacteria though live is less harsh conditions than Archae.

    15. Microscopes • A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using microscopes and other such an instrument is called microscopy.  A microscope is an optical instrument that allows you to see objects magnified. Some microscopes are so strong that you can see things that the human eye can't see alone like cells, ash, and snowflakes.  A simple microscope is one that uses only one lens to magnify, such as a magnifying glass. A compound microscope uses two or more lenses to magnify the specimen. Compound Microscopes are cheap and very common, like the ones we can find in our school. Electron microscopes is another type of microscope that is used by scientist to magnify objects up to 2 000 000 x larger.

    16. History of Microscopes • During the 1590's, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zacharias Jansen and his father Hans started experimenting with lenses. They put several lenses in a tube and made a very important discovery. The object near the end of the tube appeared to be greatly enlarged, much larger than any simple magnifying glass could achieve by itself. Zacharias is usually given credit for this invention. • Early scientists used their knowledge of magnification to see the invisible world of microorganisms. A Dutch linen merchant named Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to discover single-celled microorganisms . His hobby of creating magnifying lens and his great skill of grinding very small lenses led him to create microscope to study blood samples, pond water and plaque. He became the first one to observe organisms made of only one cell. He called the single-celled organism “Animalcules”. Robert Hooke was also experimenting with microscopes he had built to look at different things, such as a tiny piece of cork.  The small holes that were honeycombed were described as little rooms or boxes and the word cellulae was used to name them (Latin form of cell). Robert Hooke was the first one to describe a cell.

    17. Parts of the Microscope 1) Eyepiece: The Eyepiece is the top part of the microscope; it is the lens you look through to see your specimen.     2) Arm: It’s the large metal band attaching the base to the lens and eyepiece.  3) Fine Adjustment Knob: The smaller round knob on the side of the microscope used to fine-tune the focus of your specimen. 4) Coarse Adjustment Knob: Of the two knobs on the side of a microscope, it is the largest.   It is used to focus on the specimen.  Always focus with the coarse knob first.  5) Objective Lenses Most microscopes have 2, 3, or more lenses that magnify at different powers.   Always start with the lowest power and work your way up to the strongest when examining a specimen. The shortest lens is usually the lowest power.    6) Stage:  It’s where the sample or specimen is placed for examination.  7)  Iris Diaphragm:  It’s what allows you to control the amount of light on the specimen that comes through the stage. 8)  Light Source: It can be a bulb or a mirror, and is usually found near the base of the microscope shining up through the stage.    9 Aperture:  It’s the hole in the stage that allows light through for better viewing of the specimen.   

    18. Reason Cells are small and do They Get Bigger when Organisms Grow? • The reasons cells are small is because if they were bigger than they would require far more materials to function and they would require far more materials in order to function and with the large amount of materials used to function they would produce a large amount of waste far to much to be practically viable. • Cells do not grow bigger but instead new cells arise from pre-existing cells. When an organism grows there current cells split into half to produce multiple cells needed to support the whole organism.

    19. Describe at Least Four Specialized Cells That are Found in Humans Multi celled organisms have numerous cells that come in different shapes to perform a variety of jobs. CellShapeFunction • Muscle Cell Elongated Move body parts • Skin Cell Flat and brick shaped Form protective layer • Nerve Cell Long and branch like Deliver messages to body • Bone Cell Thick walled Provide support

    20. What is the structure in the cell called? • Every cell must carry out functions necessary for life. These functions can be getting minerals, supplies of energy , making products and also getting rid of wastes. To carry out the functions cells have some basic structures that are common. Structures inside of cells are called organelles. Every organelle have roles to play in the activities necessary for life. Many of the details inside cells have been discovered after the invention of electron microscope. The animal cell has an irregular round shape while the plant cell has a fixed rectangular shape. Single-cell organismshave, hair-like structure called cilia. Cilia move the cell around or move things around the cell. The cilia is present in the animal cell, but it is very rare in the plant cell. The term cilia is Latin for "eyelashes.” • Plant cells have chloroplast and cell walls which are not found in animal cells. • A cell's organelles are crucial to the function of the cell.  They carry out many of the processes that enable the cell to live.

    21. Plant and Animal Cells

    22. What is the difference between Plant and Animal Cells? Structures in cells are called organelles. Every organelle has at least one role to play in the activities necessary for life. A plant’s cell structure and an animal’s cell structure’s organelles are different. An animal’s cell doesn’t have chloroplast while a plant’s cell does. Plants need chloroplast because photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast, and photosynthesis is how plants get food and energy. Animals find food to get energy, so they don’t need the process of photosynthesis, so they don’t need chloroplast in their cells. Plants also have a cell wall(a rigid wall that lets a plant stand, like a skeleton) and animals have a skeleton so they don’t have a cell wall.

    23. The process of fluids getting in and out of cells! • Materials move into the cell through the cell membrane by osmosis. Only certain materials can move through the selectively permeable cell membrane. • In cells, nutrients move from an area of higher concentration outside the cell to an area of lower concentration inside the cell. This is done by the process of diffusion. • Wastes then move from an area of higher concentration inside the cell to an area of lower concentration outside the cell. This again is done by diffusion. • Diffusion is when a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration. • Henri Dutrochet is the French man who discovered osmosis. • Thomas Graham is the Scottish chemist who discovered diffusion. Henri Dutrochet Thomas Graham

    24. Diffusion • Diffusion is the tendency of both gas and liquid to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until both regions have an equal amount of gas/liquid particles. • The reason diffusion is the method used to transport fluids and nutrients throughout the entire structure is because it requires Kinetic Energy in order to work and not direct energy from the cells themselves thus being far more efficient than other possible methods. • Example: Diffusion also occurs within cells for example a single celled organism in water has the same dissolved Co2 as the water it lives in but if that single celled organism starts producing Co2 waste than the concentration of Co2 inside the organism will be higher than that of the water outside so it remove the waste at a faster rate so that the organism can have an equal amount of concentration of Co2.

    25. Osmosis • Osmosis is the specific type of diffusion that occurs and allows nutrients to travel throughout organisms while keeping unwanted material out using a semi-permeable membrane. • While diffusion is all about equal concentration of a liquid or gas throughout the entire region, osmosis is the movement of liquid from a diluted state to a more concentrated state. • For example if you lose water, more water is drawn into that area to replace the water that is lost because once the water is lost that region has a low concentration of liquid so both Osmosis and the Circulatory system contribute to the transportation of nutrients around the cells.

    26. What is Cell Theory • Cell Theory • All living things are composed with one or more cells. • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all organisms. • Cells arise from pre-existing cells. • Modern Cell Theory • Energy flow occurs within cells. • DNA is passed on from cell to cell. • All cells have the same chemical composition. • Scientist • There three main contributors to discovering the cell theory, they consist of Theodore Schwann, Matthias Schleiden and Rudolf Virchow. • Modern scientists discovered the modern cell theory.

    27. Cells in the human body! • White blood cell; protects you from harmful diseases. • Red blood cells; carry oxygen and collect carbon dioxide through hemoglobin. • Muscle cell; a cell that makes up an organisms’ muscle tissues. • Skin cell; a microscopic part of your skin, they are usually pliable. • Nerve cell; specialized cells for neuron function by bio chemical ion diffusion to transmit electrical impulses as information from neural cortices. • Bone cell; performs well in healing and reforming bones.

    28. How can we make sense of the vast diversity of living things? • You can make sense of the vast diversity of living things by looking at there shared characteristics. Also you can look at there genetic make up. • All living organisms are made of cells, some organisms only have one cell, some organisms have many cells and others don't have a cell nucleus. • You can look at the similar organelles that cells of living things contain like cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and Vacuoles.

    29. What do living things have in common, from the smallest to the largest living things? • Living organisms come in all shapes and sizes and although they look different, they have many characteristics that are common. Some of the common characteristics of living organisms are: • Living organisms need energy. • Living organisms respond and adapt to their environment. • Living organisms reproduce. • Living organisms grow. • Living organisms produce wastes.

    30. What variations do we find in the structure and function of living things? • Some variations that we find in living things structure and cells are that plant cells have chloroplast and cell walls while human cells animal cells don't. Plant cells do not have the skeletal system like humans do. Smaller organisms like bacteria don't have a multicellular structure while bigger organisms like humans do. Some organisms also do not have a cell nucleus which are called Prokaryotes while Eukaryotes like human cells have a cell nucleus.

    31. Bibliography http://lisacruz2.tripod.com/id30.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_(biology) http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_main.html http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/cellular-microscopic/cell.htm http://biology.about.com/od/biologydictionary/g/celltheory.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_theoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscope http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/microscope.htm http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/microscope-history.htm http://www.microscopemaster.com/history-of-the-microscope.html http://www.history-of-the-microscope.org/history-of-the-microscope-who-invented-the-microscope.php http://www.kbears.com/sciences/microscopedefinition.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_distinct_cell_types_in_the_adult_human_body http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_microscope http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/e/electron_microscope.htm http://www.jic.ac.uk/microscopy/intro_em.html

    32. Bibliography http://www.cas.muohio.edu/mbi-ws/microscopes/compoundscope.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organelle http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/cells.htm http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TR0110561/organelles.htm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-differences-between-plant-and-animal-cells.htm http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/diffus.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmosis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-cellular_life http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-non-cellular-life.htm http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_some_examples_of_specialized_cells_in_the_human_body http://www.google.ca/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi (Google Images) http://www.google.com (Web Browser) Science Focus 8 Textbook Mr. Shackelford PowerPoint Notes

    33. Credits Credits • Mustafa Ashar • HarshilBhesania • Darsh Shah • Harsh Shah • Thank you for watching