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A. Changing Balance of Power • The Church: “Reformations” • The Mind: Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment • The Economy: Mercantilism • Politics: “Absolute” Monarchs • The State: Rise of Nationalism
B. Corruption: 1. simony – the sale of Church offices 2. indulgences– buying away sins “The moment the coin tinkles in the collecting box, a soul flies out of Purgatory” 3. Pope Leo X increases indulgences to build St. Peter’s Basilica 4. Moral abuses: about 1/5 of all priests kept concubines
Saint Peter’s Basilica (constructed 1506-1626)
“Help me Saint Anne, I will become a monk!” • 1. Nails 95 Theses(or reasons) why he feels the church is corrupt… • faith alone key to salvation” • Romans I:17“The just shall live by faith” • 4. believed Pope NOT head of Church C. Martin Luther
5. June 15, 1520 Luther excommunicated & declared a heretic 6. Summoned to town of Worms (Diet of Worms) “I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience.” -Martin Luther Pope Leo X
Luther tosses the Papal Bull(excommunication papers) into a fire at Wittenberg: Luther defends himself at the Diet of Worms:
D. Outcome of Worms: • Luther’s condemned by Catholic Church & declared outlaw • German princes hide Luther • translated New Testament into German • peasants assumed Luther’s also meant political freedom & revolted (1525)… • Lutheranism spreads quickly in Germany (forbade games, dancing, & fun; encouraged hard labor) 6. Wars of religion through Europe
Protestant Reformation spreads: • 1. Ulrich Zwingli(Switzerland): • - literal interpretation of Bible • 2. John Calvin(France): • - idea of predestination (an “elect” was already chosen by God to be saved…) • 3. Henry VIII(England): • - Church of England
E. Counter Reformation (or Catholic Reformation) The Church enacts the following: I. Creates Jesuits (founded by Ignatius of Loyola) II. The Church reforms the role of the pope (no more finances or political affairs) III. Creates the Council of Trent
Council of Trent 1. met in three major sessions from 1545-1563 2. reaffirmed Catholic beliefs & rituals 3. ONLY the Church can interpret Scripture 4. faith & good works; purgatory real & indulgences o.k…. 5. created Baroque style of art & music
Do the religious differences between Europeans resemble religious conflicts in other major world religions? --Sunni & Shi’ia in Islam --split in Buddhism (Theravada, Mahayana, Zen) --Confucianism & Buddhism in China
F. Witch Hunts • “Witch Craze” 16th-17th c. linked to social upheaval, tensions, rural-urban disparities • more than 100,000 accused, at least 1/3 burned at stake • 75%-85% were women
G. The Scientific Revolution Key thinkers: 1. Copernicus (1473-1543): sun at center of Heavens 2. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) & asst. Johannes Kepler: --planets move in elliptical orbits 3. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): telescope 4. Sir Issac Newton: 3 Laws of Motion
A. The Enlightenment • if scientific laws govern physical objects…laws govern social behavior • movement called “Enlightenment” concerned with ideas about nature of “man” & concept of “good gov’t” • most considered dangerous to status quo
B. Philosophy of the Enlightenment • Led by “philosophes” • focus on reason & faith in science • religious tolerance & political equality • kings did NOT rule by divine right but by consent of people • unjust ruler=revolution
Thomas Hobbes C. The Thinkers: John Locke: tabula rasa (“blank slate”) Hobbes: “life is nasty, brutish, & short” Rousseau: “noble savage” Voltaire: toleration “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D. Commercial Revolution • Wealth from exploration causes urban explosion • Urban class: bourgeoisie(burghers in German) • city of Amsterdam financial center of Europe - developed maritime technology (“flyboats” & “East Indiaman”)
E. The Netherlands 1. Netherlands: few domestic resources led to major technological innovations & overseas trade 2. attracted skilled craftsmen (many expelled from Spain & Protestant “outcasts”) 3. developed industries: textiles, sugar refining, beer brewing, cutting tobacco, ceramics, printing 4. decentralized gov’t: encouraged economic interaction
Dutch Economics 1. Dutch Banks: secure; accepted all currencies 2. Joint Stock Companies: backed by gov’t charters to establish trade monopolies & then sold shares to raise capital (Dutch East India Company) --shares bought/sold on ‘stock exchange’ (Amsterdam Exchange) • Insurance Companies: by 1700 standard practice to ensure long voyages
F. New Economic Rivals • Dutch ships dominated all sea trade until… • Britain broke Dutch dominance through wars (1660-1700) • Britain major creditor nation (central banks) • France unsuccessful in taxing aristocracy • Britain “winner” of commercial war
The Enclosure Movement: • English landlords fence off land, privatize ‘commons’ • selected breeding of sheep, cattle • importation of crops from New World: potatoes & corn
Discuss the ways in which the Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, & Commercial Revolution had an impact on the political & economic organization of Europe.
All invoked changes in popular mentality that affected political organization • Northern Renaissance - attacked authority of church, allowed state to control church, increase in ceremony, & greater interest in military conquest & exploration • Reformation – concept of shared authority, Protestant regions more likely to have parliamentary govt., seize church possessions • Enlightenment – ability of state to benefit all citizens, concept of improvement & progress, enlightened despotism, development of more centralized governments w/ more power.