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Section 1 Human Origins and Early Civilizations Section 2 Great Empires of West Africa Section 3 Kingdoms of East and South Africa. Beginnings in Africa. Section 1: Human Origins and Early Civilizations. Main Idea
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Section 1Human Origins and Early Civilizations Section 2Great Empires of West Africa Section 3Kingdoms of East and South Africa Beginnings in Africa
Section 1: Human Origins and Early Civilizations Main Idea Africa was home to some of the world’s earliest known humans and to several advanced civilizations. • Reading Focus • What do scientists know about humanity’s origins in Africa? • What were some accomplishments of the ancient Egyptians? • How was the ancient kingdom of Kush influenced by Egypt?
Building Background It is not possible to fully understand African American history without first gaining a basic understanding of its roots in Africa. Therefore, before we can begin our study of the contributions African Americans have made to the United States, we must briefly study the history of the African continent.
Human history began in Africa Hominids appeared in East Africa about 3 million years ago Early hominids learned to make stone tools Hominids could control fire Homo sapiens Scientists not exactly sure but think first appeared 200,000 years ago in East Africa “Wise man” Every person alive today belongs to species Homo sapiens Human Origins in Africa
Humans as hunters and gatherers • Hunted deer and bison • Scavenged for plants to eat • Learned to grow own food; planted crops and raised animals • Began the domestication of plants and animals • Developing societies • People settled down and formed societies • Societies developed cultures with languages, religion, and art • Over time people migrated all over the world • Advanced civilizations developed in Africa • All played roles in shaping later cultures and ideas
Reading Check Interpret Why can Africa be called the birthplace of human history? Answer(s): The world’s first hominids lived in Africa, and some of the world’s first civilizations developed there as well.
Ancient Egypt Egypt was one of the greatest civilizations in world history. Its location was important—the Nile valley was fertile with rich layers of soil. • A Mighty Kingdom • Strong central government • Ruling pharaohs considered gods on Earth; had nearly unlimited power; tremendous responsibilities • Thousands of officials and priests helped rule; slaves assisted • Dynasties • Pharaohs divided by dynasties, or ruling families • 28 dynasties in 1,500 years; Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms are studied • To collect taxes, pharaohs took census; population of four million largest in Africa
Egyptian Achievements • Tombs • Pharaohs buried in pyramids • Gigantic structures; masterworks of ancient engineering • Elaborate temples • Later pharaohs buried in temples • Used stone columns as support • Innovation copied by other civilizations • Hieroglyphics • Writing that covered tomb walls • Intricate pictures and symbols • Represented objects and ideas • One of first writing systems; shaped writing of later cultures • Greek scholar Herodotus • Traveled to Egypt in 450 BC; wrote about his journey • Amazed by achievements he saw; calendars, record-keeping, and mathematics
Daily Life • Average Egyptians • Majority were farmers • Grew crops to survive • Forced to work on building projects during flood season • Farmers and families moved to settlements near work projects • Fed and housed in settlements • Career Paths • Learning to write important; meant career advancement • Skilled writers could become scribes • Egypt’s bureaucratic network helped run government; opportunities limited to men • Egyptian women could sign contracts and own property
Reading Check Identify What were the major achievements of the ancient Egyptians? Answer(s): Building of pyramids and temples, invention of columns, hieroglyphics, calendar, record keeping, math
Ancient Kush • Nubia • Located south of Egypt along the Nile; name meant “land of the blacks” • Home to another advanced civilization called Kush • Egypt and Kush had complicated relationship • Egypt and Kush • Traded goods with Egypt; obtained from Africans farther south • 1500s BC—Egyptian troops conquered Nubia and much of Kush • Introduced elements of culture such as clothing styles and pyramid building • 750 BC • After centuries of Egyptian rule, Kushites took advantage of decline in power • Kush invaded and took over Egypt; made Kush ruler new pharaoh • Kush ruled Egypt for several centuries
Kushite civilization centered on capital city of Meroë Located just north of present-day Khartoum, in the Sudan Great trading center; traders went north through Meroë; east to Red Sea and China and Japan; west to central Africa Iron working most famous industry; iron traded for luxury goods Achievements Developed own form of writing; still undeciphered today Built huge brick buildings, small pyramids, and temples; made pottery Attacks from outsiders Roman army attack in 23 BC failed; desert people began attacks Meroë destroyed in AD 350 by Aksum Kushite civilization dominated middle Nile region for 2,000 years Created own Egyptian-Nubian culture that influenced generations Kushite Achievements
Reading Check Describe How did the relationship between Egypt and Kush change over time? Answer(s): At first, the two kingdoms traded with each other. Then Egypt conquered and ruled Kush. Centuries later, Kush conquered Egypt.
Section 2: Great Empires of West Africa Main Idea Three powerful empires that grew rich from trade were established in West Africa. • Reading Focus • How did old trade contribute to the growth of Ghana? • What were the significant achievements of Mali? • How did Songhai become a powerful empire? • Why do modern historians study traditional African culture?
Building Background After Egypt and Kush, the next African civilizations that came to the attention of other parts of the world were the fabulously wealthy kingdoms of West Africa. Separated from Egypt by the vast Sahara, practically an ocean of sand and wasteland, these kingdoms grew in total isolation from the civilizations of northern Africa.
Ghana Merchants crossed the Sahara in search of valuable products. Sub-Saharan West Africa grew wealthy from trade in slaves and gold. • Trade • Ancient Ghana trading center • Camel caravans from north brought commodities—copper, horses, luxury goods, and salt • Traded for gold, ivory, slaves • Taxes supported powerful army • Location of gold mines secret; from 700 to 1000 Ghana at height of power • Wealth and Splendor • Ghana so wealthy it was known as “kingdom of gold” • Writers told of rulers surrounded in luxury; worshiped as gods • Wealth and fame attracted invaders; constant attacks scared merchants off • Loss of trade weakened empire; Ghana collapsed
Reading Check Identify How did Ghana’s rulers grow rich and powerful? Answer(s): By controlling the trade in several valuable goods and using their money to build an army
Mali • New Empire • Small kingdom within Ghana rose to take Ghana’s place • Took control of caravan routes across Sahara • Wealth and power followed; became leading power in West Africa • Mansa Musa • Reigned from 1307 to 1337; known for peace and security • Devout Muslim; took famous pilgrimage to holy city of Mecca • Travel took a year; lavished gifts along the way • Achievements • Emphasis on education; built great universities for religion and law • Books in Arabic appeared on trade routes; scholars came to study in Mali • Spread Islam; built mosques; converted thousands to Islam
Reading Check Describe What were the main achievements of the rulers of Mali? Answer(s): Built a huge empire, grew wealthy from trade, supported education, spread Islam
Developed from Mali empire; won back independence Growth 1464, King Sunni Ali Ber in power; brilliant strategist Equipped army with horses; built canoe navy to patrol Niger River Skilled politician; maintained rural and town alliances Three main cities—Gao, Timbuktu, and Djenné Excelled in philosophy, law, and medicine Decline Conquered states reasserted independence; weakened Songhai defeated by army of Spaniards and Moroccans Europeans brought shift in trade routes to Atlantic coast Portuguese explorers built forts and trading centers City of Benin grew wealthy from trade; created art not empire Songhai
Reading Check Identify Cause and Effect What led to the decline of Songhai? Answer(s): Uprisings within the empire followed by a shift in trade routes and the arrival of Europeans
Traditional West African Culture • No written languages • Great wealthy empires; little known of daily life • Some information of ruling classes; knowledge comes from writings of visitors • Advanced civilizations of West Africa lacked written languages • First-person accounts important • Two means to learn • Oral histories critical; spoken record from generation to generation; accounts of great deeds and customs of ancestors • Anthropologists also study traditions still practiced in region • People study village and family life, religion, and the arts
Village and Family Life • Extended family typical; father, mother, children, and close relatives • In West African society each person loyal to family • Age-sets formed special bonds; worked at specific tasks together • Religion • Central feature of village life; ancestors spirits stayed nearby after death; carved statues marked sacred places • Practiced animism—belief that natural objects have spirits • The Arts • Detailed carvings from wood and bronze; created fantastic masks • Music and dance part of rituals and ceremonies; griots kept history alive through storytelling, acted as advisors to kings
Reading Check Summarize Why do modern historians study traditional ways of life in West Africa? Answer(s): Because there are no written records of life in ancient West Africa, traditional customs provide some of the few clues to life in the past.
Section 3: Kingdoms of East and South Africa Main Idea Powerful trading societies emerged in East, Central, and South Africa. • Reading Focus • How did Arabs influence the culture and trade of East Africa? • How were the kingdoms of central and southern Africa organized?
Building Background Just as the West African kingdoms became rich through trade, so too did other civilizations to the east and south. Along the eastern and southern coasts of Africa, other advanced cultures grew up that based their success on trade. These cultures left behind a legacy that is still felt in the region today.
East Africa • Geography • Birthplace of first hominids • Stunning land; savannahs, valleys, and mountains • Wild animals included lions, elephants, and rhinos • Indian Ocean to east led to Middle East and India • Persian sailors came in 900s • Beginning of long-term trade with others • Trade with Other Lands • Dealt with people from other continents • Middle Eastern and Asian traders came for ivory and exotic animals • Main trade was in slaves • Introduced new foods like bananas, yams, and coconuts; these foods became diet staples
Trade Influences • Arab traders • Came between 1000 and 1300; married local women; set up trade centers • Became intermediaries with African interior societies • Serviced ships that sailed Indian Ocean • Exchanged Arab axes, glass, and wheat for African ivory, tortoise shells, cinnamon, rhinoceros horns, and palm oil • Chinese connection • Chinese porcelain heavily traded • Remnants from seventh-century Tang dynasty to thirteenth century Song dynasty • Evidence shows in 900s Chinese depended on East African ivory for ceremonial objects
By 100 ships from Middle East and Asia traveled along the coastline as far as Tanzania Powerful states had developed Greek Egyptian published small handbook describing Azania and city of Rhapta Men had great stature; each place within region had own ruler Zanj Later in 900 Arab al-Masudi wrote of Zanj’s leopard skins used to make saddles and clothing King of Zanj—Waklimi, supreme lord known for fairness and integrity If ceased to rule justly, would be killed Rise of Powerful Kingdoms
Swahili Culture • Swahili coast • Swahili Arabic word for coasts • Bantu-speaking farmers and fishermen also traded • Blended cultures of African and Arab life • Language • Arabic words introduced • Swahili speakers adopted thousands of Arabic words • Copied Arabic alphabet as means of writing own language • New ideas • Before land owned by whole community; everyone profited • Arabs brought ideas of individual land ownership • Islam gained influence; spread • Customs changed • Dress changed; imported cloth worn as modest clothing • No central empire; civilization spread for 1,000 miles • City of Kilwa highly praised
Reading Check Draw Conclusions Why was trade so central to East African cultures? Answer(s): Because the region lay on the coast and trade with distant lands was relatively easy
Rise of mighty kingdoms in central and southern Africa Cultures had less contact with outside influences Meant no writing systems; no travel narratives to give details of life The Kongo Kingdom Farmers on Congo River since AD 800; by 1400 small states emerged By 1500 king ruled over area with excellent government structure Provincial governors, judges, and administrators dealt with local disputes, tax and trade matters By 1480s Kongo traded heavily with Portuguese Bantu Migrations With growing populations, people of different ethnic groups moved south Spoke related Bantu languages These people often called Bantu and movement south known as Bantu Migrations Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa
Great Zimbabwe • Bantu Kingdoms • One of greatest arose in 1400s; called Zimbabwe • 10,000–20,000 people; major trading center • Zimbabwe—Shona term for court or house of a chief • Most zimbabwes consisted of small clusters of buildings on hills • Great Enclosure • Massive wall 32 feet tall and 17 feet thick; masterpiece of architecture and design • Continent of movement and change could not hold out against European influences; slave trading ripped Africans from their homes to distant lands
Reading Check Contrast How did the cultures of Southern Africa differ from those of East Africa? Answer(s): The people of Southern Africa spoke different languages and practiced different religions. They were also less influenced by outside groups.