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Chapter 9, Section 1 Early civilizations of the Americas. BY R.O.C B.O.Y. A. Geography and its impact. Latin America is a diverse geographical region. A. Geography and its impact. Land and climate of Latin America

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a geography and its impact

A. Geography and its impact

Latin America is a diverse geographical region.

a geography and its impact1
A. Geography and its impact
  • Land and climate of Latin America
    • The region is called Latin America because most of the people who live there today speak the Latin – based languages of Spanish, Portuguese, and French.
    • At one time, parts of Latin America were annexed, or taken possession of, by European countries.
    • Many of the highest peaks of the Andes are in Peru.
a geography and its impact2
A. Geography and its impact
  • The First Americans
    • Durland was under water.
    • Asian people crossed a land bridge to the Americas about 13,000 years ago, probably in search of food.
    • ing the ice age, most of Earth’s water was frozen.
    • Less of the
b early civilizations
B. Early Civilizations

B. The earliest civilizations in the Americas began when people learned to grow corn and other crops.

b early civilizations1
B. Early Civilizations
  • The Olmecs and the Zapotecs
    • People know as the Olmecs developed the earliest know civilization in the Americas.
    • Olmec art included gigantic carved stone heads.
    • They settled along the Gulf of Mexico in about 1200 B.C. The Olmecs lived by fishing and farming.
b early civilizations the maya
B. Early Civilizations The Maya
  • The Maya
  • The Maya had many achievements in the arts and science. They developed a 365 –day calendar that was the most accurate in the world at that time.
  • They also developed a system of writing that used glyphs, which are pictures or other symbols, often carved, that represent words or ideas.
  • In mathematics, they were among the first who used glyphs, which are pictures or other symbols, often carved, that represent words or ideas.
c the aztec civilization
C. The Aztec Civilization
  • C. The Aztecs developed a powerful civilization in Mexico.
c the aztec civilization1
C. The Aztec Civilization
  • The Toltecs
    • The Toltecs dominated central Mexico from about A.D. 950 to 1200.
    • The city of Tula was the capital of the Toltecs a, Empire.
    • Tula was the center of a powerful mining and trading empire.
c the aztec civilization2
C. The Aztec Civilization
  • The Aztecs
    • The Aztecs developed a unified empire with one ruler, chosen by nobles and priests, to lead wars.
    • Most prisoners, however, became human sacrifice to the gods.
    • Girls were educated by their mothers to enter certain professions.
chapter 9

Chapter 9

Section 2 Peru and the Incan Empire

a early peoples of peru
A. Early peoples of Peru
  • The earliest people of Peru were accomplished artist, architects, and engineers.
a early peoples of peru1
A. Early peoples of Peru
  • The Chavin people
    • People of the Chavin culture built stone temples in the mountains of Peru.
    • They decorated their temples with carvings of Chavin gods and images of animals such as the jaguar, and the serpent.
    • To build one temple workers need to produce about 50 million bricks.
a early peoples of peru2
A. Early peoples of Peru
  • The Moche People
    • The Moche people of Peru emerged after the Chavin culture had faded, at about 200 to 100 B.C.
    • By A.D. 900, the Moche civilization had collapsed.
    • Moche people had no written language.
b civilization of the incas
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • Building projects, in the form of roads and bridges, helped unite the vast Incan Empire.
b civilization of the incas1
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • History of the Incas
    • The Incas held the valley by attacking and conquering adjoining lands.
    • Manco Capac is considered the first ruler of the Incan people.
    • By A.D. 1438, they had taken over the entire valley.
b civilization of the incas2
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • The City Of Cuzco
    • The city plan of Cuzco was designed in the shape of a puma, or mountain lion, an animal sacred to the Incas.
    • The Incas also built palaces, including Pachacuti’s city, Machu Picchu.
    • All Incas were responsible for serving on these projects.
b civilization of the incas3
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • A System for Messages
    • The quipu contained different groups of knots that represent numbers.
    • The section closest to the main string stood for hundreds.
    • The second section represents tens, and the third section represents ones.
    • If there were no knots in a section that represented zero.
b civilization of the incas4
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • Later Incan Emperors
    • Chimu artists influenced Incan styles and methods of painting, sculpting, and decorating.
    • Huayna Capac succeeded his father, Topa Inca, in 1493. He left Cuzco to fight wars in the north.
    • He was the last of the independent Incan rulers before the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
b civilization of the incas5
B. Civilization of the Incas
  • Incan Government
    • The Incan government was a hereditary monarchy.
    • This mean that the emperor was the chief male member of the ruling family, and his direct descendants were his successors.
    • Other government jobs were filled by nobles from the outlying provinces, or territories, who were loyal to the emperor and his family.
c incan society
C. Incan Society
  • The Incas had strict government, a rigid class structure, and rich culture.
c incan society1
C. Incan Society
  • Incan religion
    • Incan religion, like many other ancient religions, was polytheistic.
    • People believed not in one god, but in many.
    • The chief god of the Incas was Viracocha, the creator of the Andean people.
    • The sun god was worshiped as a special protector of the Incas.
c incan society2
C. Incan Society
  • Incan Social Classes
    • Incan people from ruling family and other noble families considered themselves part of one extended family.
    • It was almost impossible for an Incan to change his or her social class.
    • For the most part, though, people remained in the social class into which they were born.
c incan society3
C. Incan Society
  • Incan families
    • Incan families were organized into groups.
    • One man served as an official administrator for each group.
    • Instead of paying taxes in the form of money, the people were required to work in exchange for social services.
c incan society4
C. Incan Society
  • Incan farming
    • Members of an alum owned land jointly.
    • They voted on any matters that related to the use of the land.
    • The Incas grew corn, squash, tomatoes, peanuts, cotton, and more than 200 kinds of potatoes.
chapter 9 section 3

Chapter 9, section 3

NORTH AMERICAN GROUPS

north american groups
North American Groups
  • A. The varied climates and environments of North America led to a variety of early American groups of people.
a the geography of north america
A. The Geography of North America
  • Native Americans
    • North America had no unified empires, no cities, and no palaces.
    • As they explored the continent and settled new areas, each group of Native Americans adjusted to the local climate.
    • Instead of trying to control their environment, they adapted their lifestyle to it.
a the geography of north america1
A. The Geography of North America
  • Land and climates of North America
    • The continent of North America is a huge landmass with a number of different climates and countries.
    • Mountain ranges cover much of the western half of the continent.
    • Except for the deserts of the southwest, North America has plenty of precipitation all year round.
b western groups
B. Western Groups
  • Early peoples in the western region survived in spite of settling in a harsh environment.
b western groups1
B. Western Groups
  • The Aleuts, Yupik, and Inuit
    • The Aleuts, the Yupik, and the Inuit lived in the Arctic region of present day Canada and Alaska.
    • They hunted seals, walruses, whales, and polar bears, as well as smaller game like caribou and foxes.
    • Tents and boats were made from animal skins.
b western groups2
B. Western Groups
  • Native Americans of the Northwest
    • The climate of the Northwestern coast offered an easier life than that of Alaska.
    • The guests would act as witnesses.
    • The host would serve them a huge feast and give them costly gifts.
b western groups3
B. Western Groups
  • The Anasazi
    • The Anasazi managed to grow crops in the dry, hot climate of the Southwest.
    • They also produced items such as baskets, pottery, and cloth.
    • Thick walls kept the buildings cool in the summer and warm in the winter.
b western groups4
B. Western Groups
  • The Pueblos
    • Pueblo people, the descendants of the Anasazi, are not one nation, or group.
    • They believed that kachinas have power to heal the sick and to bring rain.
    • They grew large fields of corn, beans, and squash.
b western groups5
B. Western Groups
  • The Navajos and Apaches
    • Navajo means “large planted fields.”
    • The other group became the ancestors of the Navajo.
    • In Apache culture, the courage and skill it took to make a raid successful were highly valued.
c eastern groups
C. Eastern Groups
  • Early peoples in the eastern region created new forms of architecture and government.
c eastern groups1
C. Eastern Groups
  • The Mound Builders
    • The mound builders of Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys are named for the structures they built.
    • The Andeans built mounds of dirt over the graves of their leaders and chiefs.
    • The Andeans, and their descendants, the Hope wells, placed beautiful copper ornaments in these graves.
c eastern groups2
C. Eastern Groups
  • The Iroquois
    • They spread out from the Great Lakes to the Finger Lakes.
    • They planted in the spring.
    • Autumn was the time for hunting, harvesting, and holding councils to address any issues the community had.
c eastern groups3
C. Eastern Groups
  • The Iroquois Confederacy
    • Their plan became the basis for the Iroquois Confederacy.
    • The Confederacy was made up of five Iroquois nations.
    • The chiefs of each council were nominated by the women of the nation’s families.