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Chapter 5: Ancient Greece Section 1: Early Civilizations of Greece. A. The Geography of Greece. Main Idea Mountains and seas influenced the growth and development of ancient Greek civilizations . A. The Geography of Greece. The Land, Climate and the Sea
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A. The Geography of Greece Main Idea Mountains and seas influenced the growth and development of ancient Greek civilizations
A. The Geography of Greece • The Land, Climate and the Sea • The land of Greece is difficult to farm. There are no great rivers to water the land. Rain fall is unpredictable and most of it comes in the winter. • Most Greek people lived within 40 miles of the sea. • . Although mountains often separated Greek communities, the seas linked the Greek people to the rest of the world.
A. The Geography of Greece • Early Greek Communities • Many ancient Greek people lived on the mainland, while others lived on the numerous nearby islands • The early Greeks built their communities in the most fertile areas of their homeland, mountain valleys. • The Greeks believed that they lived in the most beautiful land on earth. Their location by the sea would help them to produce a great civilization. They laid the foundation for Western civilization.
B. The Minoan Civilization Main Idea • The Minoans developed a civilization on the island of Crete
B. The Minoan Civilization • The Place of Knossos • The Minoan civilization began to flourish with the building of palaces during the Bronze Age, around 2000B.C. • The Minoans used stone to build their palaces. Each palace was built around a central courtyard. Many palaces dotted the island of Crete, but the palace of Knossos was largest. The Minoan royal family as well as its advisors, craft workers, and servants lived at Knossos. • Art was an important part of Minoan culture.
B. The Minoan Civilization • Peaceful Sea Traders • They traded by sea but were not interested in warfare or conquest. • The Minoans traded extensively with people on nearby islands, in Egypt and in other areas of the eastern Mediterranean region. They also traded with people on the Greek mainland. • Archaeologists do not know for certain what happen to the Minoans. One possibility is that a volcanic eruption on the nearby island of Thera destroyed the civilization in about 1600 B.C.
C. The Mycenaeans Grow Powerful Main Idea The Mycenaeans developed a civilization on the Greek mainland
C. The Mycenaeans Grow Powerful • Mycenaean Palaces and Sea Traders • Mycenaean palaces were surrounded by thick walls. These walls provided a defense against possible invasions. • Mycenaean palaces were centered around a great hall. Inside the palace was paintings of hunters, men ridding chariots, and battling along with animals such as lions and horses. • They traded throughout the eastern Mediterranean.
C. The Mycenaeans Grow Powerful • The Trojan War • The Mycenaeans were primarily known for their part in the Trojan war. In this war, the Mycenaeans and other Greeks attacked the rich trading city of Troy, located near the western coast of present-day Turkey • The Greeks battled the Trojans and finally seized Troy, burning it to the ground. • Many people had thought the Trojan war had just been a legend but in the 1870s a man named Heinrich Schliemann found the site of Troy and excavated.
D. The Decline of Mycenae and the Age of Homer Main Idea After the Mycenaean civilization declined, the memory of historical events was kept alive by storytellers and poets, including the poet Homer.
D. The Decline of Mycenae and the Age of Homer • At Home and Abroad • As Mycenaean cities were destroyed and abandoned, people settled in smaller villages. • During this period writing nearly disappeared and trade decreased. • Many Greeks left their homeland to settle elsewhere. They spread out from the coast of Asia minor in the east to the coast of Sicily and southern Italy in the west.
D. The Decline of Mycenae and the Age of Homer • The Iliad and The Odyssey • During the war period two epics or long narrative poems, The Iliad and the Odyssey werecreated. • The Iliad describes events during the last days of the Trojan war. The Odyssey tells the story of the long journey home of Odysseys, a Greek hero of the war. • In one section of the Iliad, the Greek king Agamemnon predicts what will happen to Troy and to Priam, the Trojan king.
D. The Decline of Mycenae and the Age of Homer • Greek Religion • Religion was important to ancient Greeks. They believed there were gods present in daily life. • The gods were thought to have human feelings like, love, hate and jealousy, as well as human form. The ancient Greeks thought they needed to please their gods. The Greeks built great temples of white marble which still stand today • The Greeks believed that Zeus, the ruler of all gods, lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain peak in Greece. He was the symbol of power, rule and law. Athena , the goddess of wisdom, was Zeus’ favorite child.
A. City-States Develop Main Idea Greek people developed city-states with several types of governments.
A. City-States Develop • Foundations of the City-State • The polis (a city-state) was made up of a city and the surrounding countryside. The size of a polis was anywhere from a few square miles to a few hundred square miles. • Part of the city is encircled by a fortress that’s usually built on a hilltop which was called an acropolis, or highest point. • A section in the main section of the polis usually including housing as well as a public square and market place was called the agora.
A. City-States Develop • Governments of the City-States • Many city-states began as monarchies. These city-states were protected from enemies by citizen-soldiers called hoplites. • In time, the wealthy landowners who served as soldiers demanded some form of power. This caused some city-states to become aristocracies, or governments in which a group of noble landowners ruled. • In some city-states, a group of nobles and business men formed an oligarchy which means “the rule of few”
B. Sparta Becomes a Military State Main idea Sparta became a powerful military city-state.
B. Sparta Becomes a Military State • A Society of Soldiers • By the 600s B.C., Sparta had one of the earliest constitutions of the Greek city-states called the Great Rhetra. • Sparta was governed by two military leaders called kings and a 28-member council of elders, or men over 60 years of age. • The entire Spartan society was organized for producing soldiers and keeping them in shape. Boys lived at home only until they were seven years old. Then their moved to barracks to start training.
B. Sparta Becomes a Military State • Women of Sparta • Spartan women had more rights than other Greek women. For example they could inherit land. Because many Spartan men were killed in warfare, women often gained control of the property. • Spartan women were encouraged to exercise and keep physically fit because the Spartans realized that healthy women would be more likely to bear strong babies. • Girls learned to run, wrestle, and throw a javelin, or spear.
C. Athenians and Their Right to Govern Main Idea Athens developed a government in which many people participated, but other Athenians, including women and slave, were not included.
C. Athenians and Their Right to Govern • Government Reforms and Limited Democracy • When civil war threatened to break out, Solon, a wise leader, was given authority to revise the laws to make things more balanced and equally fair. • Later reformers included the tyrant Cleisthenes, who gave greater power to ordinary citizens • In Athens, women and slaves could not take part in government. Only free adult men were considered citizens. Athens had also developed a limited democracy.
C. Athenians and Their Right to Govern • Education in Athens • In Athens, boys were tutored to prepare them to take part in culture and politics of the city. • They not only learned how to read, write and do arithmetic, but they also learned to play musical instruments, sing and develop the body through exercise. Boys also trained (in gymnasiums) in running, jumping, wrestling, discus and javelin throwing and other activities. • Education was limited and there was no government funding. Therefore, wealthy citizens were usually the only people who received education
D. Greek Unity in the Persian Wars Main Idea Many Greek city-states, including Sparta and Athens, united to defeat the Persians in the Persian wars
D. Greek Unity in the Persian Wars • Events of the Persian Wars • Wars began as early as 499 B.C., when Greeks who had settled on the coast near Persia rebelled against Persian rule. • Athens sent a small fleet that burned down the Persian city Sardis. Later, King Darius sent a large army to invade Greece on the plain of Marathon, in 490 B.C., Greece won the war being heavily outnumbered with a 3 to 1 ratio. • Ten years later, the new Persian King Xeres continued the fight. Greece now had the Spartans in which a few hundred defeated thousands of Persian soldiers on a narrow pass of land called Thermopylae.
D. Greek Unity in the Persian Wars • The End of the Persian Wars • After many years of war the Spartans went home with other concerns, including keeping the helots from rebelling, but Athens considered the Persians attacking again as a larger concern. • Athens organized the Delian League in 478 B.C., which later included 140 Greek city state Persian war veterans, not including Sparta, because their control on another alliance called the Peloponnesian League. • After the war ended, Athens entered the “Golden Age” a time when Greek cultured thrived.
A. The Age of Pericles Main Idea During the Age of Pericles, Athens became more democratic, prosperous, and powerful.
A. The Age of Pericles • Expanding Democracy • Pericles believed in direct democracy, government where large numbers of people take an active role. Thousands of citizens were eligible to serve in the assembly or on jury. • In Athens 6,000 jurors were chosen each year. On each day, a jury could range from 200 to 2,500. • Not all government officials were chosen by lot. People from the aristocrat class were thought to have the knowledge, time and experience need for high-level positions in government.
A. The Age of Pericles • Rebuilding Athens • Around 450 B.C., Pericles persuaded the Athenians to rebuild temples on the Acropolis and in other areas of the city. • To rebuild, Pericles used money from member states of the Delian League as well as profits from the silver mines outside of Athens. • City-states in the league protested that their money should be spent for defense purposes. The rebuilding program had cost billions of dollars in today's money.
B. Culture in the Golden Age Main Idea Athens experienced a golden age, in which art, architecture, literature, and the exploration of great ideas flourished.
B. Culture in the Golden Age • Architecture and Art • The ancient Greeks built magnificent public building that were either temples for the gods or public structures in which political events were held. • Great paintings and sculptures were created for temples and other public buildings. • Subjects for painted pottery were the heroic acts of the gods, great historical events such as the Trojan War, and daily life.
B. Culture in the Golden Age • Poetry, Drama, and History • The earliest Greek literature was written in the form of poetry. • The Greeks held festivals to see who could write the best plays. The great innovation of Greeks was drama. Plays ranged from tragedy to comedy. • The Greek historians researched the past in a more balanced way than anyone before. Herodotus, often called the Father of History wrote about the Peloponnesian war.
B. Culture in the Golden Age • Three Great Thinkers • The first Greek philosophers lived in Ionia, a region of western Asia Minor, in the sixth century B.C. The term Philosopher come from a Greek word meaning “lover of wisdom” • The three great philosophers of Greece were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle • Socrates was sentenced to death because his enemies accused him of disrespect of the gods. His student Plato did what he could in memoriam of Socrates. Then after his death in 347 B.C., Plato's student Aristotle was invited to Macedonia, eventually becoming the tutor of Alexander the Great.
C. Peloponnesian War Main Idea The Peloponnesian War between the Delian League, led by Athens, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, destroyed hopes for Greek unity.
C. Peloponnesian War • War, Plague, and Starvation • War began when the Spartans led an army into Attica, the countryside surrounding Athens. • The Athenians did not meet the Spartans in battle. Instead, Pericles had his countrymen take shelter, which, months later led to a terrible plague. • Pericles died in 429 B.C. from complications of the plague. For eight more years, the fighting continued between Athens, Sparta, and other allies.
C. Peloponnesian War • Aftermath • The Sparta had won the war, but conflict between city-states continued. • Hopes for Greek unity ended. Within Athens, democracy had lost its energy, and corruption grew. • As the city-states continued their quarrels, Macedonian ruler, Phillip II was busy training his armies to conquer the Greek city-states one by one.
A. The Rise of Macedonia Main Idea King Philip II of Macedonia gathered and trained a great army and gained control of Greece in 338 B.C.
A. The Rise of Macedonia • Philip II Gains Control • In 359 B.C. Philip II gained the throne of Macedonia and unified the two parts as Lower and Upper Macedonia • At the battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C., Philip and his army defeated southern Greek city-states including Athens, and Thebes • Philips 18 year old son, Alexander led a successful attack on the sacred band of 300 of the best soldiers in Thebes
A. The Rise of Macedonia • Alexander Takes the Throne • Philips goal was to form an alliance between Macedonia and Greece. He planned to defeat the Persian empire. • 2 years after gaining control of Greece Philip was assassinated. • At the age of 20, Alexander became king of Macedonia and Ruler of Greece, and Later fulfilled his father’s dream of conquering The Persians
B. Alexander Builds an Empire Main Idea Philip’s son Alexander, an admirer of Greek culture, conquered the Persian Empire
B. Alexander Builds an Empire • Alexander’s March • Alexander inspired his troops to go places they had never gone before. Leading them into battle, he wore a hard helmet, bright colored cloak and polished armor. • Alexander had great courage and education from the legendary philosopher Aristotle. He believed his glory was equal to Trojan War hero, Achilles. • Alexander and his force never lost a battle through Asia Minor. His forces moved from Macedonia, conquering land , marching 11,000 miles.
B. Alexander Builds an Empire • Death and Division • Alexander continued home, eventually made it to Babylon. He planned further actions, but died in 323 B.C. at age 33 from an infection or fever. • Alexander’s empire was too large for a single leader to hold. • Three of his generals struggled for power, but eventually three kingdoms emerged. The richest and most powerful was Egypt, governed by Macedonian general who became known as Ptolemy I.
C. Hellenistic Civilization Main Idea Alexander’s empire broke up after his death, but the spread of Greek culture throughout the area was a lasting achievement.
C. Hellenistic Civilization • The Economy and Growth of Cities • During this period, use of money was increased. The first real banks became known. • Most cities became rich through trade. Alexandria became the largest industrial center of the Hellenistic world along with the greatest center of education, replacing Athens • During the 2nd century B.C. , writers made lists of the artistic achievements in the Mediterranean. The lists included the Pyramids at Giza in Egypt, hanging gardens of Babylon, statue of Zeus at Olympia along with many other “wonders”
C. Hellenistic Civilization • Hellenistic Arts and Sciences • New philosophies and beliefs arose. Philosophies of ideal lives like life free from pain. • During this period, mathematics and science bloomed, especially in Alexandria. Many of the inventions and discoveries found are still used today. • The Hellenistic period ended in 146 B.C., when the Romans conquered Greece, but ancient Greek culture would continue as a strong , vital element for centuries to come.