Terms • Jazz: a kind of music created by African Americans in the South in the early 1900s • Renaissance: a time of new interest and activity in the arts
Prosperity: • 1920s: • Time of prosperity / change for many people • More people had wealth / luxury • High hopes for the future • Should sports stars / celebrities be role models?
Popular Entertainment • 1920s was a time to enjoy life • Carefree times = “Roaring Twenties” • Also known as the Jazz Age • Music • Jazz gained popularity • Drums, piano, banjo, horns – all used • Went from New Orleans to Chicago / New York • Louis Armstrong • Jelly Roll Morton • Bessie Smith • Music was popular with African Americans and whites
Popular Entertainment • Radio • KDKA – 1st radio station • Pittsburgh, PA • 1922: +500 radio stations • 1st – mostly music • News reports • Sports reports • Children’s stories • Movies • California’s climate was ideal for movies • Hollywood became movie capital of the world • People went once a week to the movies • Westerns • Romances • Adventures • Comedies • 1st – No sound • Background music • Lyrics were written on cards / shown on screen • 1927: 1st talkie • “The Jazz Singer”
Popular Entertainment • Books and Magazines • Many writers were horrified by WWI • Criticized Americans for caring too much about money and fun • Some even moved out of the US • Became expatriates • F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby • Characters were always looking for wealth and success • Ernest Hemmingway, The Sun also Rises • Wartime experiences, sports, travel
Popular Entertainment • Books and Magazines • Many magazines were 1st published in the 1920s • Time – read for news • Saturday Evening Post – read for stories
Popular Entertainment • Sports • Boxing = Jack Dempsey • Swimming = Gertrude Ederle • College Football = Red Grange • Baseball = Babe Ruth • Greatest hero of the decade: • May 1927 – Charles Lindbergh (Lucky Lindy) • Flew alone across the Atlantic Ocean • New York to Paris with no map, parachute, or radio • Opened the door to new flying possibilities
The Harlem Renaissance • African Americans moved North in the 1920s • Often came to Harlem (in NYC) • Were free to express themselves • Harlem Renaissance • Used literature and art to show racial pride • Spoke out against racial discrimination
The Harlem Renaissance • Countee Cullen • Won prizes for his poetry • Experiences of African Americans • Taught in a Harlem high school
The Harlem Renaissance • Langston Hughes • “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” – published after high school • Best known poet of the Renaissance • Encouraged African Americans to be proud of their heritage • Protested racism and violence against African Americans • Wrote poems, plays, short stories, essays
The Harlem Renaissance • Claude McKay • From Jamaica • Condemned lynchings and mob violence after WWI • Zora Neale Hurston • Novels, essays, short stories • Tried to preserve folklore • Traveled to collect folk takes, songs, prayers • Mules and Men
Women in the 1920s • New freedoms • Turned away from traditional roles • Cut hair short • Wore short dresses • Began smoking / drinking in public
Women in the 1920s • Why these changes? • 19th Amendment – women had the right to vote in all elections • Women could hold public offices • Nellie Tayloe Ross (WY governor) • Miriam A. Ferguson (TX governor) • Women kept working outside of the house • New appliances made lives easier • Books / music / art helped them to think differently • More decided to go to college
Women in the 1920s • Women were still not treated the same as men • Employed? • General belief – would work until married • Women were not trained for some jobs • Were paid less than men • Women still became doctors / lawyers • Hospitals and law offices refused to hire women
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • Alice Paul: • Noted women still lacked many legal rights (earning control) • Proposed the ERA • Complete equality of rights across the United States • Some thought the ERA would cause women to lose some legal protections • Amendment passed, never ratified
To Do • Pg. 342 (1-2) • Pg. 343 (1-3) • Exercise 76 • Bonus points (complete sentences): When was the first radio broadcast? What was announced?