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t he new migration and development optimism. alan.gamlen@vuw.ac.nz. m igration and development m ania. migration and development mania. the new ‘migration-and-development’ optimism. migration benefits everyone if the policies are right

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the new migration and development optimism
the new ‘migration-and-development’ optimism
  • migration benefits everyone if the policies are right
    • migrants win through expanding freedoms and higher living standards, but risk vulnerability
    • destination countries win through cheap low-skill labour and new ideas, but risk ethnic tensions
    • origin countries win through remittances and knowledge transfers, but risk brain drain
    • the risks of migration are best minimized (and rewards maximized) by promoting ‘circulation’ and ‘engaging diasporas’
      • Stark and Bloom (1985) The new economics of labour migration, The American Economic Review 75(2): 173-78.
t he old optimism 1950s 60s
the old optimism: 1950s-60s
  • Kindleberger (1965) Emigration and Economic Growth. BancaNatzionale Del Lavoro Quarterly Review, 28, 235-54.
  • key ideas
    • migration balances wage differentials
    • rising wages at source promote innovation
    • laissez faire approach leads to ‘balanced growth’
    • background: postwar growth drives demand for migrant labour

jethrotull’s seed drill

rural labour ‘freed’ to work in industry

Image sources: http://www.industrialrevolution.sea.ca/seed_drill.gif http://niciwiki.pbworks.com/f/workers1.jpg

t he old pessimism 1970s 80s
the old pessimism: 1970s-80s
  • Papademetriou & Martin (1991) The unsettled relationship: labor migration and economic development. New York/London: Greenwood.
  • Castles and Kosack (1973) Immigrant workers and class structure in Western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.
  • key ideas:
    • migration driven by capitalist exploitation
    • ‘asymetric growth’: destinations win, but origins and migrants lose
    • neo-marxist economic theory
    • background: oil-shocks reduce demand for migrant labour and ethnic tensions emerge

Turkish Guest Workers in Germany, 1969

Mexican Braceros compare paychecks, 1956

Images: http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/images/Gastarbeiter%20copy2.jpg http://americanhistory.si.edu/ONTHEMOVE/collection/image_1524.html. Photo by Leonard Nadel

the new optimism 1990s 2000s
the new optimism: 1990s-2000s
  • key ideas:
    • migration generally benefits all, provided the policies are right
    • the right policies involve circular migration and engaging diasporas
    • ‘third-way’ neoliberal economic theory
    • background: search for ways of ‘governing globalization’
the new optimism 1990s 2000s1
the new optimism: 1990s-2000s
  • states see need to cooperate, but unwilling to accept centrally imposed global migration governance
  • search for areas where interests coincide
    • migration and development optimism suggests a grand bargain is possible if states cooperate
      • e.g. Rolph Jenny 2006

Image source: http://www.marriedtothesea.com/031709/three-way-handshake.gif

conclusions
conclusions
  • migration and development thinking has swung back and forth from optimism to pessimism since the 1950s at least
  • the new migration and development optimism offers states a starting point for cooperation over migration, in lieu of global migration governance
  • the way we think about the impacts of migration is driven not only by social science but by wider historical factors