migration and development n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Migration and development PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Migration and development

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Migration and development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 389 Views
  • Uploaded on

Migration and development. Topics. International migration Internal migration Current international migration scenario Historical migration Relation between development and migration. Push-Pull factors. Migration push factors in the region include

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Migration and development' - lynton


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
topics
Topics
  • International migration
  • Internal migration
  • Current international migration scenario
  • Historical migration
  • Relation between development and migration
push pull factors
Push-Pull factors

Migration push factors in the region include

  • Low and variable agricultural productivity
  • Lack of local employment or advancement opportunities
  • Landlessness
  • Marginalization
  • Population pressure

Pull factors include

  • Rapid urbanization
  • Industrialization
  • An expanding transport sector
migration and development1
Migration and development
  • International migration and development is a growing area of interest
  • There has been much debate on the negative impacts of migration on development, and vice-versa
  • Some argued that underdevelopment is a cause of migration
  • Some argue that migration causes developing countries to lose their highly skilled nationals
remittances
Remittances
  • Properly managed international migration holds enormous potential for the development of countries
  • Remittances have become a prominent source of external funding for developing countries
  • In 2003, over US$100 billion dollars were sent home in remittances by migrants, helping to sustain the economies of many developing countries
german immigration to us from 1776 to 1850
German Immigration to US from 1776 to 1850
  • Germans made up almost one-tenth of the population of the country by the end of the 18th century
  • At least 500,000 Germans immigrated in the first half of the 19th century
  • 20,000 came in the years 1816-1817, fleeing a famine
  • Some 60,000 fled to America after the failed Revolutions of 1848
ireland and immigration
Ireland and immigration
  • Great Irish Famine (1846-52) destroyed about one-third of 1845 crop, and nearly all that of 1846. After a season's remission, it also ruined most of the 1848 harvest
  • In the 70 years after 1850 about a million Irish crossed the Irish Sea to England or Scotland and over four million sailed for the new worlds of America and Canada
  • Ireland's booming economy of 90’s attracted return migration and producing a rise in real estate prices
  • Many of the 38,000 Irish emigrants who returned in 1996 had equity to invest in housing
international migration and europe from 1950 75
International migration and Europe from 1950-75
  • In all the major west European industrialized countries immigrant populations have grown particularly since the beginning of the 1960s
  • Most of this started as labor migration flows and this meant migration from Southern Europe to North-Western Europe
  • In the first period they came from Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia and Portugal and later sizable immigration followed from Southern part of Mediterranean basin (morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) and Turkey
  • Flow of immigration started first in Switzerland, Belgium and France followed by Germany and Austria and still later by Netherlands
immigrants from former colonies
Immigrants from former colonies
  • In 1950s the Netherlands received sizeable inflows from Indonesia and in 1970s from Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles
  • More than a million residents of Algeria came to France and Portugal received sizeable groups from former African colonies
  • Sizable exchanges also took place to Federal republic of Germany during the 15 years following the Second World War
  • Lastly a particular migratory flow took place from the republic of Ireland to the United Kingdom
internal migration

Internal migration

Special focus on Rural Urban migration

rural to urban labor migration
Rural to urban labor migration
  • In many developing countries agriculture is not insured against irrigation and most of them depend on rains
  • Also availability and affordability of fertilizers and pesticides is a big issue
  • Many farmers bear enormous risks and in this situation it is hardly surprising that an enormous amount of labor moves from rural to urban areas
pull and pull factors of labor migration
Pull and pull factors of labor migration
  • These migrations are outcomes of “push” from agriculture due to extreme poverty and growing landlessness and the perceived “pull” of the urban sector
  • Pull factors are reinforced by a variety of factors, ranging from the high wages and workers protectionism offered by urban sectors to the effect of media in promoting urban lifestyle as a desirable lifestyle
rate of growth of urban population
Rate of growth of urban population
  • According to World Bank, the average rate of urban population growth in low income countries over the period 1980-93 was 3.9 percent compared to the average population growth of 2 percent per year
  • For the middle income countries the urban growth rate was 2.8 percent per annum over the period 1980-93 compared with a population growth rate of 1.7 percent per year
  • For developed countries there seem to be a balance between urban (0.8%) and population growth (0.6%)
service sector
Service sector
  • Countries such as US, UK, Sweden, Australia and Norway have about 70% of their total labor force in service sector
  • But many developing countries exhibit larger fractions of the labor force in service sector as well
slide24
Why the percentage of non-agricultural labor force in some developing countries is equal to developed countries?
  • What we see in developing countries is a classification of large part of the labor force into services simply because such services are fallback options for laborers lacking an industrial job
  • This sector is the home of last resort - the shelter for the millions of migrants who have made their way to the cities from rural sectors
  • People who shine shoes, petty retailers, and middle men: all get lumped into the category called services
  • The large size of this sector is the inability of the industry of these countries to keep up with the extraordinary pace of rural urban migration
relation between food and labor
Relation between food and labor
  • A significant proportion of population of a typical developing country lives in rural areas
    • majority is connected to agriculture as a way of life
  • As economic development proceeds, individuals move from rural to urban areas and agriculture acts as a supplier of labor to industry
  • Labor supply isn’t all that is at stake
  • If international food grain trade is not an option then a non agricultural sector can come only when agriculture produces more food than its producers need for their own consumption
  • Thus agriculture is also a supplier of food to industry and for development of a country both food and labor should go in tandem
harris todaro model 1
Harris-Todaro model (1)
  • The main idea of the model is that the formal urban sector pays a high wage to workers and it is this high wage that creates urban unemployment and also rural to urban migration
  • Urban formal sector has higher wages and minimum wage laws, pension schemes and unemployment benefits are required by law
  • Firms in the urban formal sector deliberately pay more wages than other places so that they can hire better people and fire inferior people
  • In case of informal urban and agricultural rural sectors they have low wages that fluctuate added with insecurity
harris todaro model 2
Harris-Todaro Model (2)
  • Migration is viewed in this model as a response to the significant wage gap between the sectors
  • Not everyone can be absorbed into formal urban sectors
  • Those who fail enter urban informal sector
  • Thus urban informal sector contains the failed aspirants to the formal sector dream who left employment as an agricultural labor
migration in the 21 st century
Migration in the 21st Century
  • Diversified, globally networked flows
      • North America and Western Europe
      • <50% of immigrants from same region
  • Concentrated, localized network flows
      • Persian Gulf and Asia-Pacific
      • >80% of immigrants from own region
      • South Africa is included in this group as a hub in international migration for Africa