Transformations of the United States and the World SOL USII.8 Lisa Pennington Social Studies Instructional Specialist Portsmouth Public Schools
Vocabulary • Yalta Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in 1945 to plan the occupation and division of Germany into four zones administered by the U.S., France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. • Superpower: the U.S. and Soviet Union emerged as the world’s two great powers, with no other country equal in power. • Satellite nations: countries dominated by the Soviet Union. • Iron Curtain: expression coined by Churchill to describe political division between democratic countries in Western Europe and Communist countries in Eastern Europe. • Containment: to hold back the spread of Communism.
After World War II… • Much of Europe was in ruins. Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany. The United States felt it was in its best interest to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability.
After World War II… • Learning from the mistakes of the past, the United States accepted its role as a world superpower, helping to rebuild Europe and Japan and taking the leading role in establishing the United Nations.
Rebuilding Efforts in Europe http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/2/24/300px-Marshall_Plan.png • The U.S. instituted George Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and stop the spread of communism. • Democratic countries received money from the U.S., established democratic governments, and became allies of the U.S. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation.
Rebuilding Efforts in Europe Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. • West Germany was democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of British and French occupation. • East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions. http://www.maps-of-germany.co.uk/images/map-of-east-west-Germany.gif
Rebuilding Efforts in Japan • General MacArthur headed the occupation government which received aid from the U.S., established a democratic government, and resumed self-government as a U.S. ally. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h62000/h62439.jpg
The establishment of the United Nations http://www.inetours.com/New_York/Images/UN/UN-Flags_8870.jpg • The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars. The United Nations building in New York City. There is a display of flags representing each member country in front of the U.N. The flags are in alphabetical order beginning with Afghanistan and ending with Zimbabwe.
Rapid Growth of the U.S. Following World War II, Americans prospered due to an expanding economy by America’s involvement in the war.
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII • With rationing of consumer goods over, businesses converted from production of war materials to consumer goods. • Americans purchased goods on credit. • What are consumer goods? • Goods such as cars, television, radios, clothes, and food that people use and re-purchase. http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumb_0/1085439585nw34jW.jpg
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII • The workforce shifted back to men and most women returned to family responsibilities. • Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://history.sandiego.edu/gen 1946 Strike outside of the Moline Company in Minneapolis.
Reasons for rapid growth of the U.S. economy after WWII • As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers. http://www.clomedia.com/images/CO0605_humancapfig3.gif
Democracy v. Communism • People Can Vote • Elections are held • People are treated equally • People have more control • There is freedom from corruption • There is respect for the voices of minorities • Importance is given for individual rights • Ministers represent the people • People are allowed to voice their opinions • Government and individual people own resources • Independent judges restore law and order • Government has more control • People can not vote • No elections are held • Views of people are suppressed • Minorities’ views are not heard • Importance is given to ministers in the government • Ministers represent the government • Equal sharing of wealth • People are not allowed to voice their opinions • Community owns major resources • Communism is a socio-economic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless structure of ownership.
Vocabulary • Cold War: state of tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps. • Domino Theory: stated by President Eisenhower that the fall to Communism of one country would cause a chain reaction of Communist takeovers. • McCarthyism: suspicions of Communists in the 1950’s by Senator McCarthy who said people were Communists without any evidence.
Vocabulary • Capitalism: economic system in which individuals own and control factors of production with little government intervention. • Communism: economic system in which the government owns or controls almost all means of production. • NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed in 1949 by democratic nations against Soviet Union attacks. • Warsaw Pact: organization formed in 1949 by the Soviet Union and Communist eastern European countries.
The Cold War • The U.S. and Soviet Union emerged from WWII as world powers, triggering a rivalry over ideology and national security. The tension between the free world and the communist world caused divisiveness at home and abroad.
Origins of the Cold War • Differences in goals and ideologies between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (two superpowers.) The U.S. was democratic and capitalist and the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist.
The Cold War Nations http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/coldwardivisionmap1.htm
Origins of the Cold War • Soviet Union’s domination over Eastern European countries; the U.S. policy of containment. http://jimriverreport.com/tdaxp_upload/stalins_new_map_md.jpg
Origins of the Cold War • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus the Warsaw Pact http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/a/a4/450px-NATO_vs_Warsaw_(1949-1990).png Borders of NATO (blue) and the Warsaw Pact (red) during the Cold War Era.
Class assignment Using this map, label the following • Countries • Nato Members • Warsaw Pact members Using the map on the back, label the following • Communist Countries • Democratic Countires
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era • Since WWII, the U.S. has been directly involved in conflicts that reflected the divisions caused by Cold War tensions and hostilities. • The Cold War was the central organizing principle in foreign affairs for 40 years.
Vocabulary • Stalemate- a situation during a conflict when action stops because both sides are equally powerful and neither will give in • Cease-fire- an agreement to stop fighting • DMZ- area where no military troops are allowed to enter; a neutral zone • Arms race-the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to build more and more weapons in an effort to surpass the other’s military strength
Vocabulary • Nuclear- atomic • Exile- Enforced removal from one's native country • Regime-governing authority • Vietcong-Communists National Liberation Front (NLF) • Escalate- gradual increase • Napalm-explosive that burned intensely • Agent Orange-chemical herbicide
Vocabulary • Draft-To select from a group for some usually compulsory (mandatory) service • Deferments- excused from the draft and going to war • Conscientious objectors- claimed their moral or religious beliefs prevented them from fighting in the war
Korean War • At the end of WWII, US and Soviet Union agreed divide Korea along the 38th parallel of latitude. • North Korea was communist and South Korea was democratic • June 25, 1950 North Korean troop invaded South Korea • South Korea was no match for North Korean troops
Korean War • President Truman declared war without asking Congress • Most UN troops were American & commanded by Gen. Douglas MacArthur President Truman Gen. MacArthur
Korean War • US troops pushed North Korean troops back into North Korea • July 1951 talks began • July 1953 Cease-fire agreement finally signed • Demilitarized zone (DMZ) set up –area between the two Koreas where no military forces is allowed
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era • South Korea and the U.S. resisted Chinese and North Korea aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate (no winner.) http://www.learnkoreanlanguage.com/images/KoreanWarMap.jpg
Bay of Pigs • 1950’s US and Soviets engaged in a nuclear arms race • Both sides built up atomic bombs, warheads, and guided missiles • U.S. President John F. Kennedy • Cuban Dictator Fidel Castro • CIA used Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro
Bay of Pigs • Kennedy agreed with military advisors and CIA • April 17, 1961 exiles landed at Bay of Pigs-Southern coast of Cuba • Kennedy refused to provide American air support • Cuban forces crushed the invasion and captured the survivors
Berlin Wall • Germany is still unsettled 16 years after WWII • Germans fleeing East Germany to the democratic west • Soviet mad • Used troops to close border and erected the Berlin War built of concrete blocks and barbed wire • Armed guards posted with orders to shoot to kill anyone attempting escape • Wall symbolizes Communist repression
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era • The Cuban Missile Crisis happened when the Soviet Union put missiles in Cuba. • The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a U.S. blockade. http://cairsweb.llgc.org.uk/images/ilw1/ilw3584.gif • What do you think this cartoon means? • Why was the U.S. concerned about Soviet missiles in Cuba?
Vietnam War • 1955 Ngo Dinh Diem with American support became South Vietnam’s leader • National Liberation Front (NLF) set up by communists in response to Diem’s crack down on Communism in South Vietnam • President Kennedy sent Special Forces—Green Berets– to train South Vietnamese troops
Vietnam War • Diem took away Buddhist’s rights; favored Catholics • Buddhist’s monks set themselves on fire in the streets • Kennedy could no longer support Diem • South Vietnamese army overthrew and assassinated Diem
Vietnam War • At Kennedy’s death 16,000 American troops were in Vietnam as advisors • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed gave President Johnson broad authority to use American forces • Johnson escalated US involvement in Vietnam • 1965 to 1975 fighting escalates
Vietnam War • North Vietnamese soldiers (Vietcong) blended in with farmers making them hard to identify • US used chemicals to assist with the war efforts • At home, people fighting over whether or not we should be in the war • College aged people showed their opposition through massive protests
Major conflicts in the post-WWII era • The U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism in South Vietnam. • Americans were divided over our involvement and the conflict ended in a cease-fire and U.S. troops withdrew. http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/69D2AEF4-9B4E-4BC9-A227-B278C0
Germany Korea Cuba Vietnam The Cold War Around the World http://www.pupilvision.com/schoolmap/outlinemaps/world1.jpg
Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe • The breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries. http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780198781646/01student/maps/break_up_USSR.jpg
Reasons for the collapse of communism in Europe • The destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989. http://www.bdonline.co.uk/Pictures/web/s/u/h/Berlin-wallready.jpg East and West German border guards join in on the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
New Challenges • The role of U.S. military intervention: Do we need to interfere in the affairs of other countries? • What do you think? Is this question still applicable today? http://savecivilization.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/01/2007_01_09t054713_450x2
New Challenges http://www.radford.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG140/envst.gif • Environmental challenges: deforestation, clearing of forests for logging or farming, pollution of oceans and freshwater by chemicals, sewage, fertilizers, and pesticides. • What issue concerning the environment is popular today? • Global warming http://enews.toxicslink.org/im-info/Air.pollution_1.jpg
New Challenges • Global issues such as the loss of jobs, trade problems such as protective tariffs, disease, and energy.
Vocabulary • Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944: known as the G.I. Bill of Rights made low interest loans and money for tuition and books available to military veterans. • Federal Highway Act: 1956; authorized a system of interstate highways across the U.S. • Changing demographics: the “baby boom” after 1946 caused the birth rate to increase for 20 years.
Vocabulary • International Declaration of Human Rights: Eleanor Roosevelt was the delegate to the United Nations and was chairperson of the U.N. commission that drafted this document. • Immigration Act of 1965: abolished the process of favoring immigrants from northern and western Europe. • Affirmative action: to give an equal opportunity for employment to all races and cultures.
Vocabulary • Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. • Economic Opportunity Act of 1964: helped Americans with job training and employment, established Head Start to help pre-school children, the Job Corps to train school drop outs and adults, and VISTA, the domestic peace corps.