OGT Benchmark: Connect developments related to World War I with the onset of World War II • Causes of the Great War • The United States and the War, 1914-1917 • The United States Enters the War • The Home Front • The Struggle for Peace (League of Nations and Treaty of Versailles)
I. Causes of World War I • A. Nationalism • B. Imperialism • C. Militarism • D. Alliances • E. War Breaks Out: Archduke Frances Ferdinand and his wife assassinated.
A. Reason #1: Nationalism Nationalism: Deep love of one’s country. This can lead to desperate actions, including fighting or war. • 1. Desire for Self-Rule • A. Europe made of several empires • B. They were multinational • C. Each group wanted own identity • Example: Austro-Hungarian Empire made up of Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croatians, Jews, and Gypsies
Nationalism, Continued • 2. Rivalry Among Nations • A. Pride = competition = rivalries • B. This led to violent relationships between countries • 3. Economic Competition • A. Industrial Revolution • Fighting for raw materials • Fighting for markets to sell goods
B. Reason #2: Imperialism 1. Countries competed for lands and raw materials 2. This competition led to conflicts C. Reason #3: Militarism 1. glorification of military power 2. Nations increased size of military 3. Nations increase weapons production 4. New technology = better and deadlier weapons
D. Reason #4: Alliances • 1. War looked inevitable • 2. Nations started forming alliances • Examples: • Germany allied with Austria-Hungary and Italy (Triple Alliance) • France allied with Russia and Great Britain (Triple Entente) Later: These countries known as “The Allies” • many other agreements made • “An attack on one is an attack on all.”
E. War Breaks Out • The Story of How the First World War Began • A country in Europe called Bosnia was a part of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia did not like this. They wanted to be a part of Serbia instead. Things were getting very tense, so the Emperor of Austria-Hungary sent his nephew, Archduke Ferdinand, to Bosnia. He was to try to smooth things over with the the government of Bosnia. • People in Bosnia did not like Archduke Ferdinand being there. One man named Gavrilo Princip decided to shoot Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. Sophie died immediately and Ferdinand died shortly after. • The Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph, then declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun.
F. Countries Quickly Choose Sides • Russia declared war on A-H • Germany declared war against Russia • France declared war on Germany • Germany declared war France • Great Britain declared war on Germany • By August 14, 1914, 7 European countries were at war. Before World War I was over, more than 20 countries had fought, including the U.S.
OGT Multiple Choice 1. _____ The first declaration of war involved • A. Serbia declaring against Bosnia • B. Russia declaring against Serbia • C. Bosnia declaring against Italy • D. Austria-Hungary declaring against Serbia
OGT Multiple Choice • 2. _____ World War I began with the assassination of • A. Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie • B. Kaiser Wilhelm • C. Czar Nicholas • D. the King of Serbia
OGT Multiple Choice • 3. _____ (Blue Book, 2005) At the start of World War I, all of the following were members of the Triple Entente except • A. Germany • B. Great Britain • C. France • D. Russia
OGT Multiple Choice 4. (Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of the causes of World War I was the nations of Europe had aligned into two alliance systems. Which of the following combination of nations comprised of the Allies? • A. France, Great Britain, and Russia • B. Germany, Great Britain, and Russia • C. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy • D. Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy
OGT Multiple Choice • #5 (Blue Book, 2005) Which factor guaranteed that a war between Britain and Germany would involve other nations? • A. the system of entangling alliances • B. new war technologies such as poison gas and airplanes • C. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo • D. the sinking of the Sussex
OGT Extended Response • (Blue Book, 2005) List and describe 2 major long-term causes of World War I. (4 points)
II. The United States and the War 1914-1917 • A. Neutrality--not choosing sides • 1. The U.S. wanted peace • 2. Woodrow Wilson is President • a. declared U.S. neutrality immediately • b. urged Americans to not take sides • c. this was not possible, not even for Wilson
B. Ties that bind • 1. U.S. was for Britain • a. spoke English • b. read English books • c. laws and customs are English • d. born in Britain (or their parents) • People in the United States started taking the sides of their ancestry.
President Woodrow Wilson He favored neutrality at the onset of World War I
C. Propaganda Very influential manner of trying to make people support their group Both sides sides used propaganda to influence people in the U.S. ***The British cut the communications cable from Germany to the U.S. All information came from Britain about the war.
D. Trade with the Allies • A. More and more we sided with Allies • 1. Trade • a. food • b. weapons and ammo • c. raw materials • **Britain had a naval blockade of Germany. This made it difficult to trade with the Central Powers. • 2. Loans • a. $2 billion • b. No loan = no trade = depression • ***1914-1916 (beginning of WWI) • Trade with Allies: from $800 million to $3 billion • Trade with Germany: $170 million to $1 million
E. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare by Germany • Germany did not like the U.S. trading with the Allies • Germany announced they would use U-Boats (submarines) to attack U.S. merchant ships heading to England • Wilson warned Germany not to do this • Germany used the U-Boat anyway
U-Boats, continued A. Germany could not follow international law • 1. Germany had 27 subs (U-Boats) • 2. began to use the subs • B. Feb. 4, 1915 • 1. Germans declare waters around British Isle a war zone • 2. urged American ships not to go there • 3. urged Americans to not travel on Brit ships • 4. Wilson didn’t listen • a. told Germany they would be responsible if any ships sunk • 5. Now, Britain begins seizing ships everywhere • a. this “gagged” Germany
F. Sinking of the Lusitania • A. May 7, 1915 • B. Lusitania: British ship • C. U-Boats sank it • D. 1000 killed, 100 Americans • E. Later found it had war supplies on it • F. American public outraged • G. NO WAR YET! Wilson sent letters to Germany in protest
G. Arabic and Sussex Pledges A. Wilson sends strong message to Germany • 1. U.S. will sail wherever it wants • 2. neutrality laws • B. Many in U.S. want war • 1. Teddy Roosevelt • C. The Arabic • 1. British ship • 2. sunk by U-Boats • 3. 2 Americans killed • 4. Germany backed down • a. they didn’t want war with us • b. Arabic Pledge--would not sink any ships
D. The Sussex • 1. French ship • 2. sunk by the Germans March 1916 • 3. May 31, 1916--Sussex Pledge • a. another promise by the Germans • E. Germans wanted same rules • 1. They killed with their U-Boats • 2. British blockade starved Germans
H. The Zimmerman Note A. wrote by German Arthur Zimmerman B. sent to Mexico 1. wants Mexico to help Germany by attacking the U.S. 2. this would keep us out of Europe 3. In return, Germany would help Mexico gain back Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico C. British intercepted the note D. They relayed the message to Wilson E. Wilson publishes the Zimmerman Note
OGT Multiple Choice • 1. When World War I first broke out the United States stated they were • A. on the side of the Allies • B. on the side of the Central Powers • C. neutral
OGT Multiple Choice • 2. During the first 3 years of the war, United States trade • A. increased with the Central Powers • B. decreased with the Allies • C. increased with the Allies • D. stayed the same with both sides
OGT Multiple Choice • 3. (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following is not an example of propaganda? • A. A gov. poster to get people to enlist in the military during a war • B. The listing of names, addresses, and telephone numbers in the telephone directory • C. An advertisement to convince consumers to buy a particular brand of shoes • D. A candidate’s campaign slogan to help him or her get elected
OGT Multiple Choice • 5. America tended to favor the Allies because of all the following except • A. language and cultural ties to Great Britain • B. reports of German atrocities coming from England • C. the huge numbers of Irish and German immigrants in the United States • D. the sinking of ships by the German U-Boats
OGT Multiple Choice • 6. (Blue Book, 2005) The single most important factor in causing the entry of the U.S. into World War I was • A. Britain’s naval blockade • B. the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo • C. unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany • D. the sinking of the Sussex
OGT Multiple Choice • 7. Two ships that were sunk by the Germans and resulted in them sending pledges to not sink any more ships were • A. the Arabic and Sussex • B. the Maine and the Arabic • C. the Maine and the Sussex • D. the Lusitania and the Andreodorea
OGT Extended Response List and explain 2 reasons why the United States became involved in World War I. (4 points)
III. The U.S. Goes to War • April 2, 1917 • 1. Wilson asks Congress for Declaration of War against Germany • 2. Wilson: “The world must be made safe for democracy.” 3. Four days later, Congress votes: Senate: 82 to 6 in favor House: 373 to 50 in favor • (Read 1st paragraph on right on page 555)
The Allies Great Britain France Russia United States The Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary The Sides During World War I • *U.S. soldiers during WWI were called DOUGHBOYS.
When U.S. entered, the Allies were in bad trouble. Central Powers almost had the war won. Submarines had kept everything (food, money, men, ammo) out of the Allied countries.
A. Trench warfare 1. machine guns 2. defensive war 3. stationary war a. front lines changed little for over 3 years 4. Conditions a. front trenches b. behind were supply trenches (5 miles) c. connected by tunnels and railways 5. “trench fever” “trench foot” “trench mouth” --all caused by filth and fatigue 6. isolation, dark, constant firing 7. “shell shock”--mental disorder A. War on the Western Front
War on the Western Front (Cont) • B. The “battle” • 1. A group from one trench charges over to the enemy trench • 2. They fire their machine guns/weapons • 3. Try to open up a hole in the line • 4. This was tough • a. barbed wire • b. enemy machine gun