option h further human physiology 2 digestion n.
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Option H Further human physiology 2. Digestion. Ms.TRS. H2.1 Gland Secretions into the alimentary canal. Features of exocrine cell. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum is usually at the base of the cell and is the site of enzyme synthesis.

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features of exocrine cell
Features of exocrine cell

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum is usually at the base of the cell and is the site of enzyme synthesis.

(b) Golgi Apparatus for post translation modification of the enzymes.

(c) Granular substances often called zymogens contain the inactive precursors of the digestive enzymes. The enzymes are proteases and the inactive form prevents auto digestion of cellular proteins.

Other features: there are tight junctions between the adjacent cells and there is a small microvilli border.

h2 2 the structure of the exocrine gland

H2.2 The structure of the exocrine gland

                                                                                                                          Exocrine glands release their secretions into a duct. There are three different methods of secretion:1

H2.2 The structure of the exocrine gland
  • Exocrine glands release their secretions into a duct.
  • Secretory cells form a single layer around the duct.
  • The secretory cells are surrounded by a basement membrane.
  • The secretory cells of an acinus will release the secretion into the lumen of the duct.
  • Ducts open onto surfaces such as the skin or another cavity (Mouth, Alimentary canal).
h2 4 the hormonal and nervous control of gland secretions


H2.4 The hormonal and nervous control of gland secretions
  • Gastric Juices are secreted by a combination of nervous and hormonal stimuli and responses:
  • Nervous:
  • a) The smell of food leads to a reflex in which
  • b) gastric juices are released into the stomach.
  • Hormonal:
  • a)The physical presence of food in the lower region of the stomach stimulates the endocrine cells within then stomach wall to release gastrin.b) Gastrin travels through the blood stream to its target tissue which are the gastric juice cells of the stomach itself and stimulate production of gastric juice
  • Movement of food to duodenum detected by medulla oblongata and production of gastric juice inhibited.
h2 5 membrane bound enzymes in gut epithelium
H2.5 Membrane bound enzymes in gut epithelium

Enzyme immobilisation is when the protein molecule is attached to a fixed surface.

Being fixed to the membrane of the epithelium of the duodenum is more efficient since the enzyme is not removed (reused) and can be linked to secondary functions including membrane transport.

Products are released close to the membrane for rapid transport to the membrane

Digestion of the disaccarides(maltose)can occur early in the digestive system

Even when the epithelial cell is rubbed off, the enzyme action can still continue.

h2 6 cellulose digestion
H2.6 Cellulose digestion
  • Humans cannot digest cellulose.
  • Humans do not produce the cellulase enzymes required to digest this polysaccharide.
  • Humans do not have bacteria or protozoan's in the gut which produce cellulase as are found in many herbivores.
  • Cellulose is the major constituent of the plant cell wall.
  • Undigested within the gut, cellulose is known within the diet as fibre.
  • Fibre creates bulk (mass ) which is a stimuli to maintain peristalsis
h2 7 the activation of pepsin and trypsin
H2.7 The activation of pepsin and trypsin
  • Both pepsin and trypsin are protease enzymes. Specifically that are both endopeptidases which hydrolyse peptide bonds in proteins to produce smaller polypeptides.
  • Pepsin and trypsin are synthesised inside exocrine cells of the stomach and pancreas respectively.
  • If they are synthesised in an active form they will autodigest the internal protein structures of the exocrine cells.
  • To prevent autodigestion the proteases are synthesised in an inactive form.

Pepsinogen is the inactive precursor of Pepsin.Pepsinogen in secreted by the Chief cells in the gastric pits of the stomach.HCl acid is secreted from the parietal cells and activates the pepsinogen to pepsin in the lumen of the stomach.

  • Trypsinogen is produced by acinar cell of the pancreas.Enterokinase is produced by the epithelial cells of the small intestineEnterokinase activates the trypsinogen to the active form in the small intestine.
h2 8 the development of stomach ulcers and stomach cancers
H2.8 The development of stomach ulcers and stomach cancers.
  • To protect the stomach wall from protein digesting enzymes and acid a mucus lining covers the surface.
  • Stomach ulcersare sore in the walls of the stomach which have become inflamed or infected.
  • The development of stomach ulcers is associated with the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
  • H.pylori is able to survive the acid conditions of the stomach through the secretion of ureases (enzyme) this leads to the local neutralisation of the stomach acid
  • This process along with the production of proteases lead to damaged epithelial cells (stomach lining) and to the mucus lining.
  • The damaged lining may be attacked by stomach acid and lead to the formation of the ulcer.
  • It is further suggested that ulcers may lead in time to the formation of tumours.
  • Stomach cancers may have a range of causes including those associated with the presence of the bacterium.
h2 9 the role of bile in lipid digestion
H2.9 The role of bile in lipid digestion.
  • Lipid (fats and oils) is insoluble in water (hydrophobic).
  • Lipids tend to coalesce into larger droplets which reduces the surface area for digestion.
  • The hydrophobic lipid is only accessible to the water soluble lipases at the interface between lipid and water.
  • To increase the access (increased surface area) and rate of lipid digestion the lipid droplet must be broken up.
  • Bile salts secreted from the liver (via gallbladder) have molecules with a combination of hydrophobic and (lipophilic) hydrophilic regions.
  • Bile salts break up the lipid droplet into many smaller droplets thereby increasing the surface area of lipid-water access.
absorption of lipids


  • (a) Bile salts and fatty acids. The phospholipid structure of the salts allows it to fuse with the cell membrane and the fatty acid molecules to pass into the epithelial cells of small intestine villus.
  • b) The fatty acids and glycerol recombine in the endoplasmic reticulum to form lipid.
  • c) Protein is added to the lipid to form lipoprotein. This is how lipid is transported around the body.
  • d) The lipoprotein is formed into vesicles called chylomicrons.
  • e) Exocytosis of the vesicles releases the lipoprotein from the cell
  • f) The lipoprotein is taken up in the lacteal vessel a branch of the lymphatic system.
  • g) The lacteals, lymphatic system and the lipoproteins eventually enter the general circulation
Absorption of lipids