Agilent SimDis Applications. Houston June 27, 2013. Simulated Distillation Methods: Application to Petroleum Processes. Dave Grudoski weMeasureIt , Inc . Houston June 27, 2013. An Overview of Simulated Distillation Methods and Their Application to Petroleum Processes.
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Agilent SimDis Applications Houston June 27, 2013
Simulated Distillation Methods: Application to Petroleum Processes Dave Grudoski weMeasureIt, Inc. Houston June 27, 2013
An Overview of Simulated Distillation Methods and Their Application to Petroleum Processes There are a number of ASTM Simulated Distillation Methods that overlap in boiling range and scope. In this presentation we discuss the ASTM methods and their merits and challenges for the analysis of petroleum streams and processes. The critical differences of the methods and the appropriate method for the analysis of process distillates, transportation fuels and whole crudes will be covered. Examples of analysis using the Agilent SimDis Package will be demonstrated.
Refinery Operational Controls Temperature/Pressure/Flow Measurements Cut Point Temperature Cat. Avg. Bed Temp. Recycle Pressure Volumetric Product Yield The Boiling Point is the single control variable consistently applied across all refinery process streams and operations.
The Value of Process Measurements Applications Realized Savings • Crude Unit Monitoring $800K/Mo • LPG Stream Quality $3MM Year • Effluent Monitoring $200K/Day • FCC Operations • Hydrocracking Operations $5MM Year
The Value of Accurate Cut Points Shift of 10°F in Cutpoint is worth $10.00/BBL Yield (Wt %) • Boiling Point (°F)
What is True Boiling Point TBP is term describing the analytical results obtained from the distillation of stabilized crude petroleum to a final cut temperature of 400°C Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature (AET). … This test method details procedures for the production of a liquified gas, distillate fractions, and residuum of standardized quality on which analytical data can be obtained, and the determination of yields of the above fractions by both mass and volume. From the preceding information, a graph of temperature versus mass % distilled can be produced. This distillation curve corresponds to a laboratory technique, which is defined at 15/5 (15 theoretical plate column, 5:1 reflux ratio) or TBP (true boiling point).
True Boiling Point TBP Curve for Distillation of a Whole Crude
SimDis SimDis (short for Simulated Distillation) is a standardized chromatographic method which models the distillation curve of a hydrocarbon mixture and converts retention time to Boiling Point. American Standards and Testing Methods (ASTM)currently uses 6 SimDis methods for a variety of sample types SimDis is the only characterization method capable of analyzing the entire range of volatile hydrocarbons found in petroleum (i.e from n-C3 through n-C120) It is the methodology of choice for the self-consistent analysis of petroleum processes and products.
SimDis-GC SimDis-Gas Chromatography partitions the sample based on the boiling points of the individual compounds contained in the sample. Low boiling compounds (molecules) are eluted and characterized first followed by higher boiling compounds n-C11 n-C20 n-C5
Simulated Distillation SIMDIS is a chromatographic procedure which translates retention time to boiling point….
D2887 SIMDIS … and detector response to Yield Wt%
D2887 SIMDIS Yield % vs BP 60% yield % occurs at 650°F Half a barrel of crude is directly usable as a distillate fuel Boiling point is the one common measurement applicable to all refining process streams SIMDIS information is essential in assigning value to crude and develop refining operating plans Yield % (wt basis)
A Chromatographic View of Distillate Fractions Naphtha/Gasoline Kero/Jet Diesel Yield (Wt %) Atmos. Gas Oil Vacuum Gas Oil Residum • Boiling Point (°F)
Current ASTM SimDis Methods Active Standards: D2887-13 Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography D3710-95(2009) Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline and Gasoline Fractions by Gas Chromatography D7096-10 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline by Wide-Bore Capillary Gas Chromatography D7169-11 Standard Test Method for Boiling Point Distribution of Samples with Residues Such as Crude Oils and Atmospheric and Vacuum Residues by High Temperature Gas Chromatography D7213-12e1 Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Distillates in the Boiling Range from 100 to 615°C by Gas Chromatography D7500-12 Standard Test Method for Determination of Boiling Range Distribution of Distillates and Lubricating Base Oils—in Boiling Range from 100 to 735°C by Gas Chromatography D7398-11 Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) in the Boiling Range from 100 to 615°C by Gas Chromatography D5399-09 Standard Test Method for Boiling Point Distribution of Hydrocarbon Solvents by Gas Chromatography Special (SimDis Like) Methods: ASTM D6417 - 09 Standard Test Method for Estimation of Engine Oil Volatility by Capillary Gas Chromatography ASTM D5442 - 93(2008) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Petroleum Waxes by Gas Chromatography
ASTM D2887 Analysis of Naphthas, Kerosene, Jet, Diesel, VGO’s and HVGO’s with FBP<1000F Procedure: For non-viscous samples: Inject neat For viscous samples: Dilute sample with CS2 The sample must have a BP Range >100F Run in order: (Although Not a Requirement) Blank Calibration QC Reference (2X)
ASTM D2887 Hardware Requirements: Oven with Cryo Cooling to -20C Oven with 390C upper temperature PTV or Cool-On-Column Inlet with 390C Temp FID Column- 100% polydimethylsiloxanewith upper Temp of 390C 99.999% N2,He, or H Carrier Gas Method Requirements: Calibration Run (nC3-nC44) (Maps Carbon Number Retention Time Axis to BP Axis) Blank Run (determines EOR Baseline) Reference Oil #1 -QC Reference (Establishes precision and repeatability to validate system performance)
D2887 SimDis Calibration Mix nC10 nC20 nC30 -44F nC3 1013F nC44
D2887 SimDis of Crude Fractions SimDis Analysis of: • Straight Run Gasoline • Kerosene • Jet • Diesel
D2887 Analysis of a Reformer SimDis Analysis of: Reforming Process which converts low octane components to high octane compounds • Reformer Feed: Alkanes and Isoparaffins • Reformer Product: Aromatics
D2887 Analysis of a Hydrocracker SimDis Analysis of: Hydrocracker Process which converts Gas Oils to Gasoline and Jet fuel Blending components Hydrocracker Feed Hydrocracker Whole Liquid Product Increasing Boiling Point
ASTM D7500 Analysis of Lube Oils, VGO’s and HVGO’s with FBP<1000F Procedure: Dilute the Sample to 1-3% solution with CS2 Run in order: (Although Not a Requirement) Blank Calibration QC Reference
ASTM 7500 Hardware Requirements: Oven with 430C upper temperature PTV or Cool-On-Column Inlet with 430Temp FID Column- 100% polydimethylsiloxane with upper Temp of 430C 99.999% N2,He, or H Carrier Gas Method Requirements: Calibration Run (nC3-nC110) (Maps Carbon Number Retention Time Axis to BP Axis) Blank Run (First run and after every 5 samples) (determines EOR Baseline) Reference Oil 5010 -QC Reference (Establishes precision and repeatability to validate system performance)
ASTM D7169 Analysis of Whole Crudes, Residua and other partially eluted samples Procedure: Dilute 0.02 g sample with 10 ml CS2 Inject Diluted Sample Run in order: Blank (and blanks after every sample) Calibration QC Reference (2X)
ASTM D7169 Hardware Requirements: Oven with Cryo Cooling to -20C Oven with 425C upper temperature PTV or Cool-On-Column Inlet with 425C Temp FID Column- 100% polydimethylsiloxanewith upper Temp of 435C 99.999% N2,He, or H Carrier Gas
ASTM D7169 Method Requirements: Calibration Run (nC3-nC100) (Maps Carbon Number Retention Time Axis to BP Axis) Blank Run (determines EOR Baseline) Reference Oil 5010 -QC Reference (sets the Carbon Response Factor for Yield Recovery Calculations)
Fingerprinting Methods Analytical Fingerprinting refers to the characterization of a sample by the use of techniques which use features obtained from the analysis to distinguish differences and similarities among samples and sample types. These methods are generally used to verify specification compliance for select product streams and often to identify the source of “fugitive” hydrocarbons
Fingerprint Example Hydrocarbons from a Pipeline Knockout Pots
Fingerprint Example ******Sorted Matches ******** 10 10.000 RED DYE DIESEL 1 0.0858 Unknown-2 ************************************ 0 0.0814 Unknown-1 4 0.0418 Calibration 2 0.0417 C7-18+C20 w nC44WAX 3 0.0301 C7-18+C20 w nC44WAX 9 0.0297 Unknown-3 11 0.0251 Unknown-4 8 0.0250 No Injection Blank 5 0.00247 CS2 Blank 12 0.00243 Unknown-5 6 0.00239 CS2 Blank 7 0.00208 LUBE OIL Overlay of best match to Red Dye Diesel
Fingerprint Example Red Dye Diesel when removed from the Sample shows another diesel and a gasoline as contaminants
Crude Oil Signature Library Reference Crude Oil Library
2D Map of the Sample Universe This plot presents a visualization in a 2D mathematical space of the chromatographic profiles for 1650 samples including 200 crude oils
Identification and Extraction of Similar Samples-Crude Oils Here we show the utility of our approach to automatically extract the samples from the data base having the greatest similarity to the source sample
Identification and Extraction of Similar Samples-Naphthas Here we show the utility of our approach to automatically extract the samples from the data base having the greatest similarity to the source sample