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Chapter 4: Section1 What Are Minerals?. Minerals – a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. What 5 Characteristics Does a Mineral Have to Have?. A mineral must be: Naturally Occurring Inorganic Solid Crystal Structure

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chapter 4 section1 what are minerals
Chapter 4: Section1What Are Minerals?
  • Minerals – a naturally occurring, inorganicsolid that has a crystalstructure and a definite chemicalcomposition
what 5 characteristics does a mineral have to have
What 5 Characteristics Does a Mineral Have to Have?

A mineral must be:

  • Naturally Occurring
  • Inorganic
  • Solid
  • Crystal Structure
  • Definite Chemical Composition
what does it mean to be naturally occurring
What Does It Mean to Be Naturally Occurring?
  • A mineral must occurnaturally
  • Cement, brick, steel, and glass all come from substances found in Earth’s crust but they are manufactured by people
how can something be inorganic
How Can Something Be Inorganic?
  • Inorganic – the mineral cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing
  • Ex. Coal is NOT a mineral because it is made up the remains of plants and animals
what kind of pattern must a mineral have
What kind of pattern must a mineral have?
  • A mineral must have a crystal structure – a repeating pattern of a mineral’s particles that forms a solid.
  • Faces – a crystal’s flat side that meets at sharp edges and corners
what kind of composition must a mineral have
What kind of composition must a mineral have?
  • A mineral must have a definite chemical composition – it always contains certain elements in definite proportions; most minerals are compounds

Cinnabar – composed of the elements Mercury and Sulfur

what is the difference between an element and a compound
What Is the Difference Between an Element and a Compound?
  • Element – a substance composed of asinglekind ofatom. Ex. Hydrogen
  • Compound –Twoor moreelementscombinedso that the elements no longer have distinctproperties Ex. Water H20
how do you identify minerals
Properties:

Density

Crystal Shape

Cleavage and Fracture

Special Properties

Hardness

Color (this can vary)

Streak

Luster

How Do You Identify Minerals?
how do you determine a mineral s hardness
How Do You Determine a Mineral’s Hardness?
  • Friedrich Mohs invented a test to describe and compare the hardness of minerals
  • Mohs Hardness Scale
    • Ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest
how does the mohs scale work
How Does the Mohs Scale Work?
  • Gypsum (2) will scratch talc (1), calcite (3) will scratch gypsum (2), fluorite (4) will scratch calcite (3), etc.
what is a streak test
What Is a Streak Test?
  • The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder
  • The streak color and the mineral color are often different
  • To test: rub a mineral against an unglazed tile (streak plate)
what is the luster of a mineral
What is the Luster of a mineral?
  • Luster – used to describe how a mineralreflectslightfrom itssurface
  • Minerals containing metals are oftenshiny
  • Earthy, waxy, and pearly
what does density have to do with minerals
What does Density have to do with Minerals?
  • Each mineral has a characteristicDensity
  • Density – or mass per unit volume; Density = mass/volume
  • Displacement – the volume of the displaced water equals the volume of the the sample
what kind of shape does a mineral have
What Kind of Shape does a Mineral have?
  • Minerals have a crystal structure
    • Cubic
    • Hexagonal
    • Tetragonal
    • Orthorhombic
    • Monoclinic
    • Triclinic
what is mineral cleavage
What is Mineral Cleavage?
  • Cleavage – A mineral’s ability to split easily along a flat surface
  • The ability to break apart depends on the arrangement of the atoms in the mineral

Cubic Cleavage

Basal Cleavage

what is mineral fracture
What is Mineral Fracture?
  • Fracture – How a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way
what special properties does a mineral have
What Special Properties does a Mineral have?
  • Fluorescence –minerals that glow under ultraviolet light
  • Magnetism - ex. Loadstone
  • Chemical Reactivity- ex. Calcite gives off carbondioxide
  • Electrical Properties – ex. quartz
section2 how are minerals formed
Section2: How are Minerals Formed?
  • Two General Ways:
    • Crystallization of melted materials
      • Minerals fromMagma
    • Crystallization of materials dissolved in water
      • Minerals fromHot watersolutions
      • Minerals formedby evaporation
what is crystallization
What is Crystallization?
  • Crystallization
    • the process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure
how do minerals form from magma
How do Minerals form from Magma?
  • Minerals form as magma cools inside the crust, or as lava hardens on the surface
what effects crystal size
What Effects Crystal Size?
  • Rate at which magma cools
    • Slower cooling forms larger crystals
  • The amount of gas the magma contains
  • The chemical composition of the magma
how do minerals form from hot water solutions
How do Minerals Form from Hot Water Solutions?
  • Magma beneath Earth’s surface has heated the water to a high temperature beneath Earth’s surface causing minerals to dissolve
  • When this solution cools the elements and compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals
what is a solution
What is a Solution?
  • Solution – A mixture in which one substance dissolves in another
what do pure metals often form from hot water solutions
What do Pure Metals often form from Hot Water Solutions?
  • Veins – A narrow channel orslabof amineralthat is much different from the surrounding rock
how are minerals formed by evaporation
How are Minerals Formed by Evaporation?
  • As water turns to vapor it leaves behind the mineral
  • Example: A salt water solution leaves behind large crystals of salt
where are minerals found
Where are Minerals Found?
  • Earth’s crust is made up of a variety of minerals however; rare and less common minerals are usually located near plateboundaries because of volcanic activity and mountain building
section 3 how are minerals used
Section 3: How are Minerals Used?
  • Minerals are the source of
    • Metals ex. Aluminum, Iron
    • Gemstones ex. Rubies and Sapphires
    • Other Useful materials ex. Talc (talcum powder)
ore what
Ore What?
  • Ore - A rock that contains a metal or economically useful mineral
  • Most metals, gemstones, and useful minerals must be separated from their ores
what are the 3 types of mines
What are the 3 Types of Mines?
  • StripMines – Giant equipment is used to scrape away soil
  • OpenPit Mines – Miners dig a tremendous pit
  • Shaft Mines – A network of tunnels that extend deep underground