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Chapter 6. New Order in Science and Politics . Scientific Revolution. Cosmology Theory of the order of the universe Isaac Newton, Principa Mathematica, 1687. Geocentric Theory. The Earth was the centre of the universe. Accepted thought for years. Heliocentric Theory.

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

New Order in Science and Politics

  • Cosmology

  • Theory of the order of the universe

  • Isaac Newton, Principa Mathematica, 1687

Geocentric theory
Geocentric Theory

  • The Earth was the centre of the universe. Accepted thought for years.

Heliocentric theory
Heliocentric Theory

  • Challenged Ptolemaic model. The sun is the centre of the universe. The earth sits on an axis and it with the other planets rotate around the sun.

Nicolas Copernicus, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies, 1543

Perfect Circular Orbit

Johannes Kepler, Three Laws of Planetary Motion

Incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason.

Revolutionary science
Revolutionary Science

  • Earth not center of universe therefore man is not

  • Potential to shake faith of citizens


  • First to use telescope

  • Strongly supported Copernicus theory

  • Angered the Catholic Church


  • “ I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our own age”

  • “I do not believe that the God who endowed us with senses, reason and intellect has intended to forgo their use.”


Galileo inquisition 1633
Galileo & Inquisition 1633

  • Galileo forced to recant teachings and admit error.

  • Was sentenced to life imprisonment

  • “And yet it moves”, after leaving courthouse

Law of gravity
Law of Gravity

  • Force that held planets in orbit was the same that caused bodies to fall to earth


  • An orderly clock or machine perfectly created by God

  • Can be understood through math

  • Laws apply throughout universe


  • “God Exists and there it lies”

  • God is the creator of the universe (that’s how we know God) but he does not get involved directly with humanity.

  • One step from Atheism

Scientific method
Scientific Method

Impact of Newton- to describe something mathematically was thought to get at its reality; quantitative explanations came to be trusted not only for their accuracy, but as a reflection of reality.

Francis bacon
Francis Bacon

  • Attacked deductive reasoning of Aristotle

  • Father of Scientific Method

  • empiricism (accumulated information)

  • induction (reasoning from the particular to general) Repetitions of the same phenomena result in laws.

Rene descartes
Rene Descartes

  • What is Truth/What is real/

  • Centrality of the mind over the senses in determining truth (Deduction)

  • Rationalism was the path to a theory of knowledge

  • We can be certain of one thing? We exist!

  • “I think therefore I am?

John locke
John Locke

Tabula rasa (the mind is a blank slate)

Gain knowledge through experience rather than reason.

Progress is in our own hands.


  • Divine Right of Kings

  • “Kings have the power of life and death. They are judges over all of their subjects and are accountable to none but God”

  • James I 1610


  • Conflict between King and aristocracy won by King (standing armies)

  • State becomes more important than church

  • Economic development and imperialism

Absolute style
Absolute Style

Louis XIV, 1643-1715

‘The Sun King’

Ruled by divine right

Creates intendants-civil servants that collected taxes. Status and position determined by the King. Funds go towards his military and state objectives.

‘I am the state’

Versailles facts
Versailles Facts

  • 365 hectares of Gardens

  • 35 000 workers

  • Rooms named after Ancient Gods

  • Chapel for 900 nobles

  • Home to writers, artists, musicians

Military power
Military Power

  • France becomes major military power in Europe. Louis creates a standing army that exceeds 290,000 men by 1688.

  • French Gov’t goes into large debt funding Louis foreign ambitions

  • 4 major wars under Louis XIV

  • War of Spanish Succession, 1701-1713 failed to unite the Spanish and French throne.

English model
English Model

  • Constitutionalism- Authority in the state is distributed legally among different levels of institutions. Limit to royal authority.

English civil war
English Civil War

  • King Charles I vs. Parliament 1640’s

Oliver Cromwell

  • Revolution Against Charles I

  • Causes

  • Charles attempted to govern by personal rule and avoiding parliament.

  • He was sympathetic to Catholics.

  • He alienated Presbyterians when he tried to force the Anglican form of prayer on them.

  • Events

  • Parliament passed laws abolishing taxes collected without its consent and forbidding the king to dissolve parliament.

  • Charles arrested a number of parliamentary leaders which led to civil war.

  • Oliver Cromwell organizes a New Model Army and defeats the King’s forces.

  • Charles is tried and executed- ‘a public enemy to the good people of this nation’

  • Results

  • England became a republic

  • Cromwell was made Lord Protector of the nation

  • He dismissed parliament

  • After his death, parliament decided on restoring a limited monarchy to avoid further internal conflicts and army rule. Charles II became King.

  • Charles II

  • Catholic sympathizer

  • Parliament passes Test Act-only Anglicans can hold civil/military jobs

  • England divides into two political groups-Tories-support King Whigs-support parliament

  • James II

  • Brother of Charles II, practicing Catholic

  • Appoints Catholics to important positions- infuriates Tories

  • In 1688 has a son with his Catholic wife- concerns protestants over future of England

William of orange
William of Orange

  • Glorious Revolution

  • A group of Whigs and Tories go to the Netherlands to ask William to send an army to England. He is married to James II daughter Mary who was protestant.

  • William is hoping to secure an alliance with England against Louis XIV of France

  • James II flees to France thus abdicating the throne.

  • William and Mary are crowned as joint monarchs. A constitutional monarchy is preserved.

Thomas Hobbes,

Leviathan, 1651

Essence of hobbes
Essence of Hobbes

Hobbes- On the State of Nature:

“No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all continual fear, and the danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”

Hobbes political leaders
Hobbes & Political Leaders

  • A sovereign leader must have complete authority over citizens.

  • Laws must be strongly enforced and contracts obeyed.

  • The authority of the leader should not be limited.

  • Egalitarianism stressed among people.

John locke two treatises of government 1690
John LockeTwo Treatises of Government, 1690

Locke natural rights
Locke & Natural Rights

  • People need to establish a government to protect “life, liberty, and property” These were what Locke called natural rights.

  • Government formed to protect these rights as a type of social contract. Limited power should be given to this gov’t.

  • Agreement is in the form of a constitution that guarantees civil liberties.

  • Parliamentary Gov’t best suited to do this because no one person or group could dominate

Locke the right of revolution
Locke & the Right of Revolution

Individuals have right to overthrow Gov’t which destroys liberty