Cells . Cell Theory. Cells are the fundamental (smallest) units of life. All organisms are composed of cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. (Proved by Pasteur who disproved spontaneous generation in 1859.) Spontaneous Generation Formulated in 1838 by Schwann and Schleiden .
Vein carrying blood
to hepatic portal
Most cells are < 200 μm in size.
Minimum resolution of human eye is 200 μm.
Resolution is the distance apart that two objects must be in order for the eye to view them as distinct not a blur.
Microscopes improve resolution.
The proteins of the cell membrane can have several functions.
1pt. Discussion of negative phosphorus atoms, of phospholipids being attracted to water and forming a barrier in the bi-layer.
1pt. Discussion of the bi-layer needed to prevent water from forming hydration shells
1pt. Discussion of the fatty acid tails being protected sandwiched in-between the Phosphorus barriers.
1pt. Correct use of scientific terms.
1pt. Answer has no more than three sentences. (Following Directions.)
Figure 4.12 Lysosomes Isolate Digestive Enzymes from the Cytoplasm (Part 1)
Small particles diffuse through cytoplasm
Figure 4.12 Lysosomes Isolate Digestive Enzymes from the Cytoplasm (Part 2)
Figure 4.13 A Mitochondrion Converts Energy from Fuel Molecules into ATP
Outer Membrane- little resistance to flow of materials.
Inner Membrane- folded (cristae): greater surface area than O.M.
Controls flow of substances
Embedded with proteins to synthesize ATP
Matrix- contains enzymes, DNA, and ribosomes
1pt. (Half point for one of the following: DNA, ribosomes, cell membrane, cytoplasm)
Repeat Fig 3.20A here
= carbohydratecovalent bond protein
= carbohydrate covalent bond lipid