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Chapter 1: the Human Body. A & P 8/20/13. Anatomy. The study of the Structure and Shapes of the body and their relationships to one another. Gross Anatomy: The study of large easily observable structures of the body. example: Bones and Liver

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  • The study of the Structureand Shapes of the body and their relationships to one another.

Gross Anatomy: The study of large easily observable structures of the body.

example: Bones and Liver

Microscopic Anatomy: The study of very small structures that require the naked eye to be aided

  • The study of how the body parts work or the Function of the body parts.
    • Neurophysiology- functions of the nervous system
    • Cardiac physiology- functions of the heart
structural organization
Structural Organization
  • Starts with the simplest and becomes complex
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ Systems
  • Organism
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • The external covering of the body, or skin.
  • Waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues and organs from harm.
  • Excretes salts and urea to help regulate body temperature and pressure
  • Houses pain receptors to alert us of what is happening on body surface.
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments and joints.
  • Supports the body and provides framework for the muscles to produce movement.
  • Also serves as a protective barrier for our most vital organs
    • Brain, heart
  • Stores minerals
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Simply provide movement by contracting muscles.
nervous system
Nervous system
  • Fastest acting control system.
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Nerves
  • And sensory receptors
endocrine system
Endocrine system
  • Controls the bodies activities, but slower than the nervous system.
  • Endocrine glands produce chemicals called hormones that use the blood stream to get to specific organs
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
  • The heart and the blood vessels
  • Use blood as the transporting fluid to carry substances like oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other important substances to and from tissues cells where exchanges are made.
lymphatic system
Lymphatic system
  • Complementary to that of cardiac system.
  • Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs such as spleen and tonsils.
respiratory system
Respiratory system
  • Keep the body consistently supplied with oxygen
digestive system
Digestive system
  • A tube running through the body from the mouth to the anus.
  • Break down food and deliver the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells
urinary system
Urinary system
  • Remove the nitrogen-containing waste from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.
reproductive system
Reproductive system
  • Exists to produce offspring.
necessary life functions
Necessary Life functions
  • Maintaining Boundaries
  • Movement
  • Responsiveness (irritability)
  • Digestion
  • Metabolism
  • Excretion
  • Reproduction
  • Growth
must have to survive
Must have to survive…
  • Nutrients
    • Chemical energy
  • Oxygen
    • Required for chemical reactions to release energy from foods
    • 20% of air we breath is oxygen
  • Water
    • 60-80% of body weight
  • Body Temperature
    • 98.6 Degree F
  • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Exchange of O and CO2
    • Cellular Metabolism at high altitudes
  • The bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing.
  • Nervous and Endocrine Systems
    • Receptor: Send information
    • Control Center: analyzes information and determines response
    • Effector: Provides the means for control center to respond
homeostasis cont d
Homeostasis Cont’d
  • Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    • Causes stimulus to decline or end
  • Positive Feedback Mechanisms (rare in the body)
    • Enhances the stimulus
    • Blood Clotting and birth of a baby
directional terms
Directional Terms

Superior/ Inferior





Proximal Distal


directional terms1
Directional terms

Prone and Supine

body cavities
Body Cavities
  • Dorsal body cavity
    • Cranial cavity
    • Spinal cavity
  • Ventral body cavity
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Diaphragm
    • Abdominopelvic
      • Abdominal
      • pelvic
abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • 4 Quadrants
    • Right Upper
    • Left Upper
    • Right Lower
    • Left Lower
abdominopelvic regions
Abdominopelvic Regions
  • Umbilical Region
  • Epigastric Region
  • Hypogastric (pubic) Region
  • Right Iliac (inguinal) Region
  • Left Iliac (inguinal) Region
  • Right Lumbar Region
  • Left Lumbar Region
  • Right Hypochondriac Region
  • Left Hypochondriac Region
anterior view of ventral body cavity organ s
Anterior View of Ventral Body Cavity Organ’s
  • Lungs
  • Liver
  • Heart
  • Diaphragm
  • Spleen
  • Stomach
  • Small Intestine
  • Large intestine (Colon)
  • Gallbladder
  • Appendix
  • Bladder