Human Body Systems Technology Project by R. Leonard
Human Body SystemsTHEDR. I.I.L. MCSNEER WAY • Digestive • Respiratory • Integumentary • Immune • Lymphatic • Muscular • Circulatory • Skeletal • Nervous • Endocrine • Excretory • Reproductive And Levels of Organization
Human Body Systems This slide presentation is meant to help you study the major systems of the human body. Use it as an introduction or as a review. Follow the instructions as you move along to explore and learn. You can go through the entire program slide by slide, or you skip to focus on any one system.
http://www.parentingpress.com/pics/sock_cvr.jpg Believe it or not, you are organized! • The main levels of organization are… • Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, and You (the Organism).
Can you identify & label the 3 levels of organization shown here? Well, at least your body is!
Levels of OrganizationThe Human Body has several “layers” of organization beginning with the simplest and becoming more complex. Answers to previous slide: cell, tissue, organ (small intestine). http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/bisci004a/chem/levels.jpg
Here They Are: Your Body Systems (Part 1). http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif
And Your Body Systems (Part 2) http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/lect_19.htm
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents…Your Integumentary System (It’s Your Skin!)
Your skin covers your body and prevents the loss of water. It protects the body from injury and infection. The skin also helps to regulate body temperature, eliminate wastes, gather information about the environment, and produce vitamin D. The skin is organized into two main layers, the epidermis and the dermis.
What is Botox? Botox is the commercial name given to a toxin which is produced from botulism toxin. a medical protein that is injected into a muscle to cause temporary (months) paralysis of that muscle. This helps prevent the appearance of wrinkles.
Your Skeleton’s Functions Your skeleton has five major functions. It provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your internal organs, produces blood cells, and stores certain materials until your body needs them
The Structure of Bone Many bones have the same basic structure. A thin, tough membrane covers all of a bone except the ends. Blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the bone through the membrane. Beneath the membrane is a layer of compact bone, which is hard and dense, but not solid. Small canals run through the compact bone, carrying blood vessels and nerves from the bone’s surface to the living cells within the bone. Just inside the compact bone is a layer of spongy bone, which has many small spaces within it.
Cartilage Cartilage provides a smooth surface between bones or sometimes a more flexible extension of bone, as in the tip of your nose. As an infant, much of your skeleton was cartilage. By the time you stop growing, most of the cartilage will have been replaced with hard bone tissue.
Joints A joint is a place in the body where two bones come together. Joints allow bones to move in different ways. Immovable joints connect bones in a way that allows little or no movement. Movable joints allow the body to make a wide range of movements. Movable joints include ball-and- socket joints, pivot joints, hinge joints, and gliding joints. The bones in movable joints are held together by a strong connective tissue called a ligament.
Take Care of Your Bones! A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise can start you on the way to a lifetime of healthy bones. As people become older, their bones begin to lose some minerals. Mineral loss can lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily. Regular exercise and a diet rich in calcium can help prevent osteoporosis.
Do You Know Your Bones? Fill in the blanks on the next slide or on your handout, and check the following slide for the answers.
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone breaks.
Types of Muscles Your body has three types of muscle tissue—skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.
Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones of your skeleton. Because you have conscious control of skeletal muscles, they are classified as voluntary muscles. These muscles provide the force that moves your bones. Skeletal muscles react quickly and tire quickly. At the end of a skeletal muscle is a tendon. A tendon is a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. Note- ligaments connect bones together.
Smooth Muscle Smooth muscles are called involuntary muscles because they work with your conscious effort.
Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles found only in the heart. Cardiac muscles do not get tired. A Cardiac Muscle Cell
Voluntary Muscles The muscles that are under your direct control are called voluntary muscles. Smiling and turning the pages in a book are actions of voluntary muscles
Involuntary Muscle Action The muscles that are not under your conscious control are called involuntary muscles. Your colon (left) is lined with smooth muscle, and your heart (right) is comprised of cardiac muscle which works automatically pumping blood around your body.
How Do Muscles Work? Muscles work by contracting, or becoming shorter and thicker. Because muscle cells can only contract, not extend, skeletal muscles must work in pairs. While one muscle contracts, the other muscle in the pair returns to its original length. For example, in order to move the lower arm, the biceps muscle on the front of the upper arm contracts to bend the elbow. This lifts the forearm and hand. As the biceps contracts, the triceps on the back of the upper arm returns to its original length. To straighten the elbow, the triceps muscle contracts while the biceps returns to its original length.
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents…Your Nervous System Your nervous system receives information about what is happening both inside and outside your body. It also directs the way in which your body responds to this information. In addition, the nervous system helps maintain homeostasis. A stimulus is any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react
Your Nervous System Your nervous system consists of the central and peripheral systems. The central nervous system (CNS), includes the brain and spinal cord; the peripheral system includes the nerves to the rest of the body.
What Is Homeostasis? Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Homeostasis is one of the fundamental characteristics of living things. It refers to the maintenance of the internal environment within tolerable limits. All sorts of factors affect the suitability of our body fluids to sustain life; these include properties like temperature, salinity, acidity, and the concentrations of nutrients and wastes. Because these properties affect the chemical reactions that keep us alive, we have built-in physiological mechanisms to maintain them at desirable levels. When a change occurs in the body, there are two general ways that the body can respond. In negative feedback, the body responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change. Because this tends to keep things constant, it allows us to maintain homeostasis. On the other hand, positive feedback is also possible. This means that if a change occurs in some variable, the response is to change that variable even more in the same direction. This has a de-stabilizing effect, so it does not result in homeostasis. Positive feedback is used in certain situations where rapid change is desirable (see Positive Feedback for an example). To illustrate the components involved in negative feedback, we can use the example of a driver trying to stay near the speed limit. The desired value of a variable is called the set point. Here, the set point is a speed of 55 mph; in controlling body temperature, the set point would be 98.6 degrees. The control center is what monitors the variable and compares it with the set point. Here, the control center is the driver; for body temperature, it would be the hypothalamus of the brain. If the variable differs from the set point, the control center uses effectors to reverse the change. Here, the effector is the foot on the accelerator pedal; in controlling body temperature, it would include the glands that sweat and the muscles that shiver. Web Sources and Resources: http://www.colorado.edu/epob/academics/web_resources/cartoons/gas.html
Neurons The cells that carry information through your nervous system are called neurons, or nerve cells. The message that a neuron carries is called a nerve impulse. A neuron has a large cell body that contains the nucleus. The cell body has threadlike extensions. One kind of extension, a dendrite, carries impulses toward the cell body. An axon carries impulses away from the cell body. Axons and dendrites are sometimes called nerve fibers. A bundle of nerve fibers is called a nerve.
A NEURON viewed under a electron microscope. Can you locate the cell body, axon, and dendrites?
Central & Peripheral Nervous Systems Working Together The yellow parts are CNS parts and the purple are parts of your peripheral nervous system.
Reflexes: Some nerve signals go only to the spinal cord and back. The knee jerk reflex (seen in the figure to the above) is called a monosynaptic reflex. This means that there is only 1 synapse in the neural circuit needed to complete the reflex. It only takes about 50 milliseconds of time between the tap and the start of the leg kick...that is fast. The tap below the knee causes the thigh muscle to stretch. Information is sent to the spinal cord. After one synapse in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, the information is sent back out to the muscle...and there you have the reflex.