Values are… “a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others.” (Hofstede, 1980, p. 19) * Values are what you wish and what is important to you. * Values are essential for the concept of our self. Cultural values … represent explicit and implicit shared ideas about what is good, correct and desirable within a group of people.
Questions to ask ? ? ? Which values are universal? Which values are only shared by a group of people? Do people share the same basic value orientations? Do different environmental conditions produce different values? ? ? ? Does this mean that these fundamentals of human behavior cannot be compared across cultures?
Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks (1961) Fundamental Value Orientations * Human nature (good, bad or neither as well as mutable or unmutable) * Relation to nature (mastery, harmony subordination) * Time orientation (past, present or future) * Activity (being, doing or becoming) * Relations among human beings (lineal, collateral or individualist)
Schwartz’ Seven Value Types Issue 1: Relation between the individual and group * Conservatism * Intellectual Autonomy * Affective Autonomy Issue 2: Preservation of social structure * Hierarchy * Egalitarianism Issue 3: Relation between natural and social world * Mastery * Harmony
Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) • General characteristics • Food and clothing • Housing and technology • Economy and transport • Individual and family activities • Community and government • Welfare, religion and science • Sex and life cycle
BERRY & GEORGAS (1995) • Eco-cultural: temperature, terrain, water supply, soil conditions • Socio-political: economic, political and judicial, religion, education