Personality andCultural Values • Chapter 9
Personality • The structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior • Where does your personality come from?
Personality • Nature vs. Nurture • Are you extraverted or introverted? How does that compare to your parents? • Do such similarities represent nature or nurture?
Personality • Nature vs. Nurture • Twin Studies • Scientists study identical twins reared apart in order to separate nature and nurture effects • This research suggests that between 35% and 49% of the variation in personality is due to genetics
Personality • While we could come up with thousands of adjectives, most of them would cluster around five general dimensions • We call these dimensions the “Big Five” • How do you score on them?
Conscientiousness • Relevant adjectives: • Dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, persevering • What’s your score?
Agreeableness • Relevant adjectives: • Kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, warm • What’s your score?
Neuroticism • Relevant adjectives: • Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, unstable • What’s your score?
Extraversion • Relevant adjectives: • Talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, dominant • What’s your score?
Openness to Experience • Relevant adjectives: • Curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, sophisticated • What’s your score?
Other Personality Variables • Locus of control • Strongly correlated with neuroticism • Reflects the distinction between believing that events are driven by luck, chance, or fate, versus people’s own behaviors
Other Personality Variables • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Extraversion vs. Introversion • Sensing vs. Intuition • Thinking vs. Feeling • Judging vs. Perceiving
Other Personality Variables The RIASEC Model
Other Personality Variables • An increasing number of organizations are attempting to measure “honesty” or “integrity” for use in hiring. Why? • Such measures tap three of the Big Five: • High conscientiousness • Low neuroticism • High agreeableness
Integrity Tests • The fact that integrity tests work may be surprising, because we would expect that people would lie about (or at least exaggerate) their integrity • Such concerns over “faking” also apply to measures of the Big Five
Cultural Values • Shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture • Cultural values provide societies with their own distinctive personalities
Cultural Values • Project GLOBE • Power distance • Uncertainty avoidance • Institutional collectivism • Ingroup collectivism • Gender egalitarianism • Assertiveness • Future orientation • Performance orientation • Humane orientation