Session 3 Cultural Values 上外宾馆的圣诞装扮 Image Courtesy of Zhu Yaoyun Zhu Yaoyun@yahoo.cn http://course.sdu.edu.cn/cec.html
Deep Culture 1.1 Deep Structure of culture (1) Family (2) State (community)/History (3) Religion (worldview) 1.2 Deep culture: functions (1)They carries the most important beliefs (2) They and their messages endure (3) They are deeply felt (4) They supply much of a person’s identity 1.3 Case study
Stereotyping • 2. 1 Stereotype: Introduction Definition Nature Effects Causes Popularity • 2.2 Stereotype: Examples • 2.3 Video Analysis
Outline 1. Perception 2. Belief 3. Value 4. Cultural Pattern = Belief + Value
Detailed Contents 1. Perception • Definition • Characteristics 2. Beliefs • Definition • Acquisition • Function 3. Values • Definition • Examples • Characteristics
1.1 Definition of Perception Perception is best defined as “the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data in a way that enables us to make sense of our world.” • Perception is the primary mechanism by which you develop your worldview.
1.3 Perception and Culture Perception is culturally determined. Two ways that culture influences the perception process: (1) Perception is selective. What is allowed in is, in part, determined by culture. (2) Your perceptual patterns are learned. “We learn to see the world in a certain way based on our cultural background.”13 www.themegallery.com
World Map in Yellow: http://shijue.me/show_idea/50f79cf98ddf8756e7000585/50f79c108ddf875f47000481
2. 1 Beliefs : Defintion A good tan --- a healthy, active lifestyle Suntanned skin ---- a low social status Zhang Ziyi, Photo Source: www.126baidu.org Perceptions are stored within each human being in the form of beliefs What are your beliefs? Beliefs are one’s convictions about the truth of something —with or without proof
2.2 Beliefs : Acquisition and Function 2. How did you acquire them? Beliefs are shaped by the individual’s culture.”14 3. What function do they perform? • Beliefs serve as the storage system for the content of our past experiences, including thoughts, memories, and interpretations of events. Beliefs are important • Because they are “accepted as truths.” • They form the basis of your values,
2.2 Beliefs : Acquisition and Function • Chinese Zodiac, By Grand Master Tan Khoon Yong Source: www.WayOnNet.com • Chinese Zodiac, By Grand Master Tan Khoon Yong Source: www.WayOnNet.com • Chinese Zodiac, By Grand Master Tan Khoon Yong Source: www.WayOnNet.com • RAT • OX • RABBIT • DRAGON • SNAKE • HORSE • TIGER • GOAT • MONKEY • ROOSTER • DOG • PIG
3.1 Values: Defintion • Human cloning • Capital punishment • Abortion rights • Plastic Surgery Values -----enduring attitudes about the preferability of one belief over another. ------shared ideas about what is true, right, and beautiful which underline cultural patterns and guide society in response to the physical and social environment.”18Nanda &Warms www.themegallery.com
3.2 Values: Topics • Topics that deal with values • Evil versus good • Dangerous versus safe • Ugly versus beautiful • Abnormal versus normal • Irrational versus rational • Dirty versus clean • Decent versus indecent • Unnatural versus natural • Paradoxical versus logical • Moral versus immoralHofstede:21
3.3 Values: Characteristics Values are transmitted by a variety of sources (family, proverbs, media, school, church, state, etc.) and therefore tend to be broad based, enduring, and relatively stable. “Values are programmed early in our lives”( Hofstede) and therefore are often nonrational, especially when viewed by someone from another culture.23 values are learned within a cultural context. Characteristics: generally normative and evaluative
3.3 Values: Characterstics E.g. Leadership metaphors • Derr, Rousillon and Bournois: • USA– The Free Agent, superstar • Latin America – The General, strong man in charge • France– The Genius, intellectual elite • UK– The Diplomat • Germany – The Master, expert in field • Japan– Senior Statesman • China– Warlord(军阀 ), has local power
Summary Perception is best defined as “the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data in a way that enables us to make sense of our world.” • Beliefs are one’s convictions about the truth of something—with or without proof. •Values are enduring attitudes about the preferability of one belief over another.
Detailed Contents 4.1 Cultural Patterns 4.2 Obstacles in Using Cultural Patterns 4.3 Taxonomies of Diverse culture patterns (1) High-context Vs. Low-context by Hall (2) Dimensions of national culture by Hofstede (3) Face and facework theories by Ting-Toomey (4) Value Orientation taxonomy by Kluckhohn, Kluckhohn, and Strodtbeck (5) 7 fundamental dimensions of culture by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner
4.1 Cultural Patterns Beliefs + Values = Cultural Pattern •Cultural pattern taxonomies are used to illustrate the dominant beliefs and values of a culture. Phoenix, http://www.cultural-china.com/
4. 2 Obstacles in Using Cultural Patterns • WE ARE MORE THAN OUR CULTURE The dominant values of a culture may not be shared by all individuals within a culture. • CULTURAL PATTERNS ARE INTEGRATED • CULTURAL PATTERNS ARE DYNAMIC • CULTURAL PATTERNS CAN BE CONTRADICTORY
4.3 Taxonomies of Diverse Culture Patterns (1) Context Orientation: High context versus Low context (2) Hofstede dimensions of national culture • Power Distance (PDI) • Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) • Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) • Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) • Long-Term Orientation (LTO) (1991) • Indulgence versus Restraint (2001) monochromic and polychromic time
4.3 Taxonomies of Diverse Culture Patterns (3) Ting-Toomey’s face and facework theories (4) The Kluckhohn, Kluckhohn, and Strodtbeck Value Orientation taxonomy human nature, (2) the perception of nature (3) time, (4) activity, (5) relationships. www.themegallery.com
(5) Extensive Reading: Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner Late 1980s 7 fundamental dimensions of culture: • Relationships with people • Universalism vs. particularism • Individualism vs. communitarianism (collectivism) • Neutral vs. emotional • Specific vs. diffuse • Achievement vs. ascription • Understanding of time attitudes toward environment www.themegallery.com
4.1 Theories and Themes 1:Context Orientation Late 1950s – Edward Hall • high context Vs. low context ---- the degree to which individuals rely on internalized information. Image Source http://www.intcul.tohoku.ac.jp/~yamaguch/JPG/systemic_room_supplement/sft_profile/context_of_culture.gif
4.3.1 High-context cultures • (Much of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America) ----relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative. • Words are not so important as context, which might include the speaker’s tone of voice, facial expression, gestures, posture—and even the person’s family history and status. • High-context communication tends to be more indirect and more formal. Flowery language, humility, and elaborate apologies are typical.
4.3.2 Low-context cultures • (North America and much of Western Europe) --- logical, linear, individualistic, and action-oriented. • People from low-context cultures value logic, facts, and directness. • Communicators are expected to be straightforward, concise, and efficient in telling what action is expected. • To be absolutely clear, they strive to use precise words and intend them to be taken literally.
A Japanese manager explained his culture’s communication style to an American: • “We are a homogeneous people and don’t have to speak as much as you do here. • When we say one word, we understand ten, but here you have to say ten to understand one.”
Map of low-High context dimensions, source: http://agents2change.typepad.com/blog4/2012/01/examining-culture-5-the-highs-and-the-lows-of-cultural-difference.html • Video: • Visit by Waverly’s Boyfriend Rich
4.3.2 Hofstede dimensions of national culture • Late 1960s – Geert Hofstede Founded and managed personnel research dept of IBM Europe. • • Surveyed 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries . The values that distinguished countries from each other could be grouped statistically into four cluster-. • Power Distance (PDI) • Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) • Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) • Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) • Long-Term Orientation (LTO) (1991) • Indulgence versus Restraint (2001,93 countries) • http://geert-hofstede.com/ www.themegallery.com
4.2 .1 Power distance • This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. • The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people.
4.3 .2 (1) Power Distance • People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
4.3 .2 (1 ) Power Distance • In societies with low power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power.
4.3 .2 (1 ) Power distance • People in high-power distance countries such as India, Africa, Brazil, Singapore, Greece, Venezuela, Mexico, and the Philippines • Low-power distance countries such as Austria, Finland, Denmark, Norway, the United States, New Zealand, and Israel hold that inequality in society should be minimized
4.3 .2 (1 ) Power Distance：Video Analysis High power distance High power distance High power distance Low power distance Malaysia 马来西亚104 Guatemala 危地马拉95 Panama 巴拿马95 Philippines 菲律宾94 Mexico 墨西哥 81 China 中国80 America 美国40 Ireland爱尔兰28 New Zealand 新西兰22 Denmark 丹麦18 Israel 以色列13 Austria 奥地利 11 • Conflicts between a Mother and a daughter in Joy Luck Club 喜福会
4.3.2 (2) Individualism/collectivism continuum • Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. • Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. • people’s self-image: “I” or “we.”
4.3.2 (2) Individualism/collectivism continuum • According to Hofstede’s findings (see Table 5.1), the United States, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, the Netherlands and New Zealand all tend toward individualism.
4.3.2 (2) Individualism/collectivism continuum 2. In collective societies, such as those in Pakistan, Colombia, Venezuela, Taiwan, Peru, and much of Africa and Asia, people are born into extended families or clans that support and protect them in exchange for their allegiance. In many Arabic nations, tribalism predominates. African Americans also exhibit “Hispanics— including Mexican-Americans, Cubans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, Puerto Ricans, and others.”78
4.3.3 Related Theories: Face Theory • For Ting-Toomey,face and facework take different forms and are valued differently across cultures. Save face / lose face Face is a function of group affiliationin collectivistic cultures and is self-derivedin individualistic cultures. In conflict situations, collectivistic cultures focus on other-face and mutual face, while individualistic cultures focus on self-face. www.themegallery.com
4.3.2 (3) Masculinity vs. femininity (career success and quality of life) • The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive. • Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.