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Topic 3c: Respiration. Learning Objectives. Posses a knowledge of respiratory anatomy sufficient to understand basic respiratory physiology and its relation to speech sound generation. Describe how physical laws help explain how air is moved in and out of the body

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Posses a knowledge of respiratory anatomy sufficient to understand basic respiratory physiology and its relation to speech sound generation.
  • Describe how physical laws help explain how air is moved in and out of the body
  • Outline the functional subdivisions of the lung volume space
  • Compare and contrast characteristics of speech breathing and metabolic/vegetative breathing
  • Use the pressure-relaxation curve to explain the active and passive forces involved in controlling the respiratory system
  • Describe how various respiratory impairments can lead to diminished speech production abilities
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Posses a knowledge of respiratory anatomy sufficient to understand basic respiratory physiology and its relation to speech sound generation.
speech breathing
Speech Breathing
  • Why do we breathe?
  • How does breathing help us speak?
life and speech breathing are distinct processes in terms of
Life and Speech Breathing ARE DISTINCT PROCESSES in terms of
  • Primary functional goal
  • Surface features
  • Mechanisms underlying action
role of breathing in speech
Role of breathing in speech
  • Respiratory System is a Variable Power Source
  • Aerodynamic power needed to generate sound sources
    • Phonation, frication, bursts, aspiration
  • Must be able to vary power to allow for
    • Intensity variation (phonation & obstruent production)
    • Fundamental frequency variation
  • Must also meet metabolic needs of speaker
structure and mechanics of respiratory system
Structure and Mechanics of Respiratory System
  • Pulmonary system
    • Lungs and airways
      • Upper respiratory system
      • Lower respiratory system
  • Chest wall system
    • “Houses” pulmonary system
    • Structures on which muscle activity is generated
  • Pulmonary system & chest wall are linked (pleural linkage)
chest wall system
Chest wall system
  • Rib cage
  • Abdomen
  • Diaphragm
chest wall lung relation
Chest wall-Lung relation
  • Lungs not physically attached to the thoracic walls
  • Lungs: visceral pleura
  • Thoracic wall: parietal pleura
  • Filled with Pleural fluid
  • Ppleural < Patm - “pleural linkage” allows the lungs to move with the thoracic wall
  • Breaking pleural linkage Ppleural = Patm - pneumothorax
learning objectives2
Learning Objectives
  • Describe how physical laws help explain how air is moved in and out of the body
physics of breathing
Key Quantities

Pressure (P)

Volume (V)

Flow (U)

Boyle’s Law

V=k/P or V P=k

As V↑ P↓

As V↓P↑

Physics of Breathing
moving air within respiratory system
 Vthoracic = Palv

Palv < Patm (- Palv)

P differential = density differential  air molecules flowing into lungs = inspiration

 Vthoracic = Palv

Palv > Patmos(+ Palv)

P differential = density differential  air molecules flow out of lungs = expiration

Moving air within respiratory system

Patm: atmospheric pressure

Palv: alveolar pressure*

Vthoracic : thoracic volume

P = k/V: Boyle’s Law

*pressure in lungs typically described as alveolar pressure

changing thoracic volume v thoracic two degree of freedom model
Requires

Muscular forces

Elastic forces

Strategies

∆ Length

∆ Circumference

Changing thoracic volume (Vthoracic): two degree of freedom model
changing length of thoracic cavity
Changing length of thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

Abdominal wall

muscles

changing circumference of thoracic cavity
Changing circumference of thoracic cavity

Rib cage elevation

(e.g. external intercostals m.)

Rib cage lowering

(e.g. internal intercostals m.)

summary changing lung volume v lung
Summary: Changing lung volume ( Vlung)
  • pleural linkage:Vthoracic = Vlung
  •  Vthoracic is
    • raising/lowering the ribs (circumference)
      • Raising:  Vthoracic = inspiration
      • Lowering:  Vthoracic =expiration
    • Raising/lowering the diaphragm (vertical dimension)
      • Raising: Vthoracic =expiration
      • Lowering: Vthoracic =inspiration
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Outline the functional subdivisions of the lung volume space
selected volumes capacities and levels
Selected volumes, capacities and levels

Tidal Volume (TV)

  • Volume of air inspired/expired during rest breathing.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

  • Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled, “below” tidal volume.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

  • Volume of air that can be inhaled, “above” tidal volume.

Vital Capacity (VC)

  • Volume of air that can be inhaled/exhaled (i.e. VC=IRV +TV+ERV)

Residual Volume (RV)

  • Volume of air left after maximal expiration. Measurable, but not easily so.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

  • Volume of air enclosed in the respiratory system (i.e. TLC=RV+ERV+TV+IRV)

Resting End Expiratory Level (REL)

  • Location in lung volume space where tidal breathing typically ends (35-40 % VC in upright position)
slide27
NOTE
  • Some authors use the term FRC (functional residual capacity) instead of REL (resting end-expiratory level)
  • Behrman uses resting lung volume (RLV)
  • Refers to equivalent “place” in the lung volume space
some typical adult values
Typical Volumes & Capacities

Vital Capacity (VC)

4-5 liters

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

~ one liter more than VC

Resting Tidal Volume (TV)

~ 10 % VC

Resting expiratory end level (REL)

~ 35-40% VC when upright

Typical Rest Breathing Values

Respiratory rate

12-15 breaths/minute

Alveolar Pressure Palv

+/- 2 cm H20

Airflow

~ 200 ml/sec

Some typical adult values
learning objectives4
Learning Objectives
  • Compare and contrast characteristics of speech breathing and metabolic/vegetative breathing
speech vs life breathing
Rest Breathing

Volume

10 % VC at rest

Alveolar Pressure Palv

+/- 2 cm H20

Average Airflow

100-200 ml/sec

Ratio of inhalation to exhalation

~40/60 to 50/50

Speech Breathing

Volume

20-25 % VC @ normal loudness

(note this varies by utterance length)

40 % loud speech

Alveolar Pressure Palv

+ 8-10 cm H20 on expiration

Average Airflow

100-200 ml/sec

Ratio of inhalation to exhalation

~ 10/90

Speech vs. Life Breathing
respiratory system mechanics
Respiratory System Mechanics
  • It is spring-like (elastic)
  • Elastic systems have an equilibrium point (rest position)
  • What happens when you displace it from equilibrium?
learning objectives5
Learning Objectives
  • Use the pressure-relaxation curve to explain the active and passive forces involved in controlling the respiratory system
slide34

Displacement away from equilibrium

Restoring force back to equilibrium

Longer than

equilibrium

equilibrium

slide35

Displacement away from equilibrium

Restoring force back to equilibrium

Shorter than

equilibrium

equilibrium

slide36

Displacement away from equilibrium

Restoring force back to equilibrium

Shorter than

equilibrium

Longer than

equilibrium

equilibrium

slide37

Displacement away from REL

Restoring force back to REL

Lung Volume

Below REL

Lung Volume

Above REL

REL

respiratory mechanics bellow s analogy
Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s Analogy
  • Bellows volume = lung volume
  • Handles = respiratory muscles
  • Spring = elasticity of the respiratory system
rel respiratory system equilibrium
No pushing or pulling on the handles ~ no exp. or insp. muscle activity

Volume in bellows at rest ~ REL

Patmos = Palv, therefore no airflow

REL: Respiratory System Equilibrium
shifting lung volume away from rel
Shifting Lung Volume away from REL

muscle force

elastic force

  • pull handles outward from rest
  • V increases ~ Palv decreases
  • Inward air flow
  • INSPIRATION

muscle force

slide42

Shifting Lung Volume away from REL

muscle force

elastic force

  • push handles inward from rest
  • V decreases ~ Palv increases
  • outward air flow
  • EXPIRATION

muscle force

respiratory mechanics bellow s analogy1
Respiratory Mechanics: Bellow’s Analogy

Forces acting on the bellows/lungs are due to

  • Elastic properties of the system
    • Passive
    • Always present
  • Muscle activity
    • Active
    • Under nervous system control (automatic or voluntary)
  • Moving to a volume other than REL requires an external force
    • Muscle activity (inspiratory or expiratory)
    • Mechanical assistance (mechanical ventilator)
characteristics of system elasticity
Characteristics of System Elasticity
  • Since elastic recoil forces will have the effect of exerting a pressure within the respiratory system, the effect is termed the relaxation pressure
  • Magnitude of relaxation pressure is roughly proportionate to the amount of displacement from REL
  • REL is expressed as a lung volume
  • This gives rise to a relaxation pressure curve
    • Plots relaxation pressure (units Palv) as a function of lung volume
slide47

60

40

relaxation pressure

20

REL

Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)

0

-20

-40

-60

80

60

40

20

0

100

% Vital Capacity

slide48

Breathing for Life: Inspiration

  • pulling handles outward with net inspiratory muscle activity
slide49

Breathing for Life: Expiration

  • No muscle activity
  • Recoil forces alone returns volume to REL
slide50

60

40

20

relaxation pressure

Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)

0

-20

-40

-60

80

60

40

20

0

100

% Vital Capacity

Breathing for Life

~ 2 cm

10 %

respiratory demands of speech
Respiratory demands of speech
  • Conversational speech requires
    • Constant average alveolar pressure
      • Generate subglottal and supraglottal pressures for sound production
    • Ability to generate quick variations in pressure
      • Vary intensity
      • Vary fundamental frequency
      • For emphatic and syllabic stress, phonetic requirements etc
    • Requires a respiration system OPTIMIZED for action
respiratory demands of speech1
Conversational speech

Volume solution

Constant alveolar pressure 8-10 cm H20

Pulsatile solution

Brief increases above/below constant alveolar pressure

Driving analogy

Volume solution

Maintain a relatively constant speed

Pulsatile solution

Brief increases/decreases in speed due to moment to moment traffic conditions

Respiratory demands of speech
example
Example

10

5

Pressure wrt atmosphere

0

-5

Time

slide54

Breathing for Speech: Inspiration

  • pulling handles outward with net inspiratory muscle activity
  • Rate of volume change is greater than rest breathing
slide55

Breathing for Speech

60

40

20

relaxation pressure

Target Palv ~ 8-10 cm

Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)

0

-20

-40

20 %

-60

80

60

40

20

0

100

% Vital Capacity

slide56

Breathing for Speech: Expiration

  • Expiratory muscle activity & recoil

forces returns volume to REL

  • Pressure is net effect of expiratory muscles (assisting) and recoil forces (assisting)
slide57

60

Optimal region

Prelax > 0

assists Palv

Add Pexp to

Meet Palv

40

20

Target Palv ~ 8-10 cm

0

Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)

-20

Prelax: relaxation pressure

Psg: target alveolar pressure

Pexp: net expiratory muscle pressure

Pinsp: net inspiratory muscle pressure

-40

20 % VC

change

-60

80

60

40

20

0

100

% Vital Capacity

slide58

60

Prelax > Palv

Requires

“braking”

Add Pinsp to

Meet Palv

Optimal region

Prelax > 0

assists Palv

Add Pexp to

Meet Psg

Below REL

Prelax < 0

opposes Palv

Add Pexp to

meet Palv

& overcome

Prelax

40

20

Target Palv ~ 8-10 cm

0

Alveolar Pressure (cm H20)

-20

Prelax: relaxation pressure

Palv: target alveolar pressure

Pexp: net expiratory muscle pressure

Pinsp: net inspiratory muscle pressure

-40

20 % VC

change

-60

80

60

40

20

0

100

% Vital Capacity

speech breathing is very active
Speech Breathing is VERY ACTIVE
  • Modern view of speech breathing (Hixon et al. (1973, 1976)
summary muscle activity
Inspiration

Life

Active inspiratory muscles

Principally diaphragm

Speech

COACTIVATION OF

inspiratory muscles

Diaphragm

Rib cage elevators

expiratory muscles (specifically abdominal)

INS > EXP = net inspiration

System ‘tuned’ for quick inhalation

Expiration

Life

Relaxation pressure

No muscle activity

Speech

Active use of

rib cage depressors

abdominal muscles

System “Tuned” for quick brief changes in pressure to meet linguistic demands of speech

Summary: Muscle activity
summary muscle activity1
Summary: Muscle activity

No Airflow

Life

  • Minimal muscle activity

Speech

  • COACTIVATION of
    • Inspiratory: rib cage
    • Expiratory: abdomen
    • System ‘balanced’
interpretation of information
Interpretation of information
  • Constant muscle activity may serve to “optimize” the system in various ways

For example,

  • Abdominal activity during inspiration
  • pushes on, and stretches the diaphragm
  • Optimal length-tension region of diaphragm
  • Increase ability for rapid contraction which is needed for speech breathing
interpretation of information1
Interpretation of information
  • Constant muscle activity may serve to “optimize” the system in various ways

For example,

  • Abdominal activity during expiration
  • Provides a platform for rapid changes in ribcage volume (pulsatile)
  • Without constant activity, abdomen would ‘absorb’ the forces produced by the ribcage
learning objectives6
Learning Objectives
  • Describe how various respiratory impairments can lead to diminished speech production abilities
chest wall paralysis
Chest Wall Paralysis
  • Remember those spinal nerves…
  • Paralysis of many muscles of respiration

Speech breathing features

  • variable depending on specific damage
  •  abdominal size during speech
  •  control during expiration resulting in difficulty generating consistent Palv and modulating Palv
  • Treatment: Support the abdomen
mechanical ventilation
Mechanical Ventilation
  • Breaths are provided by a machine

Speech breathing features

  •  control over all aspects of breath support
  • Length of inspiratory/expiratory phase
  • Large, but inconsistent Palv
  • Inspiration at linguistically inappropriate places
  • Speech breathing often occurs on inspiration
  • Treatment: “speaking valves”, ventilator adjustment, behavioral training
parkinson s disease pd
Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
  • Rigidity, hypo (small) & brady (slow) kinesia

Speech breathing features

  •  muscular rigidity   stiffness of rib cage
  •  abdominal involvement relative to rib cage
  •  ability to generate Palv
  • modulation Palv
  • Speech is soft and monotonous
cerebellar disease
Cerebellar Disease
  • dyscoordination, inappropriate scaling and timing of movements

Speech breathing features

  • Chest wall movements w/o changes in LV (paradoxical movements)
  •  fine control of Palv
  • Abnormal start and end LV (below REL)
  • speech has a robotic quality
other disorders that may affect speech breathing
Other disorders that may affect speech breathing
  • Voice disorders
  • Hearing impairment
  • Fluency disorders
  • Motoneuron disease (ALS)
lifespan considerations kent 1997
Lifespan considerations (Kent, 1997)
  • Respiratory volumes and capacities
    •  until young adulthood
    •  young adulthood to middle age
    •  during old age
      •  stature
      •  elastic properties
      •  muscle mass
lifespan considerations kent 19971
Lifespan considerations (Kent, 1997)
  • Maximum Phonation Time (MPT)
    • Longest time you can sustain a vowel
    • Function of
      • Air volume
      • Efficiency of laryngeal valving
    • Follows a similar pattern to respiratory volume and capacities
lifespan considerations kent 19972
Lifespan considerations (Kent, 1997)
  • Birth
    • Respiration rate 30-80 breaths/minute
    • Evidence of ‘paradoxing’
    • Limited number of alveoli for oxygen exchange
lifespan considerations kent 19973
Lifespan considerations (Kent, 1997)
  • 3 years
    • Respiration rate 20-30 breaths/minute
    • Speech breathing characteristics developing
lifespan considerations kent 19974
Lifespan considerations (Kent, 1997)
  • 7 years
    • Adult-like patterns
    • > subglottal pressure than adults
    • Number of alveoli reaching adult value of 300,000
  • 10 years
    • Functional maturation achieved
  • 12-18 years
    • Increases in lung capacities and volume