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## Topic 2

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**Topic**2**Table of Contents**Topic 2 Topic 2: Data Analysis Basic Concepts Additional Concepts**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 SI Units • Scientists need to report data that can be reproduced by other scientists. They need standard units of measurement. • In 1795, French scientists adopted a system of standard units called the metric system. • In 1960, an international committee of scientists met to update the metric system. • The revised system is called the Système Internationale d’Unités, which is abbreviated SI.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Base Units • There are seven base units in SI. • A base unit is a defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world. • A base unit is independent of other units. • Some familiar quantities that are expressed in base units are time, length, mass, and temperature.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Base Units**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Time • The SI base unit for time is the second (s). • The frequency of microwave radiation given off by a cesium-133 atom is the physical standard used to establish the length of a second.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Time • To better describe the range of possible measurements, scientists add prefixes to the base units. • This task is made easier because the metric system is a decimal system.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Time**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Length • The SI base unit for length is the meter(m). • A meter is the distance that light travels through a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second. • A vacuum is a space containing no matter. • A meter, which is close in length to a yard, is useful for measuring the length and width of a room.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Mass • Recall that mass is a measure of the amount of matter. • The SI base unit for mass is the kilogram(kg). • A kilogram is about 2.2 pounds. The kilogram is defined by a platinum-iridium metal cylinder.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Derived Units • Not all quantities can be measured with base units. • For example, the SI unit for speed is meters per second (m/s).**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Derived Units • Notice that meters per second includes two SI base units—the meter and the second. A unit that is defined by a combination of base units is called a derived unit. • Two other quantities that are measured in derived units are volume and density.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Volume • Volume is the space occupied by an object. • The derived unit for volume is the cubic meter, which is represented by a cube whose sides are all one meter in length. • For measurements that you are likely to make, the more useful derived unit for volume is the cubic centimeter (cm3).**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Volume • The cubic centimeter works well for solid objects with regular dimensions, but not as well for liquids or for solids with irregular shapes. • The metric unit for volume equal to one cubic decimeter is aliter (L).**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Volume • Liters are used to measure the amount of liquid in a container of bottled water or a carbonated beverage. • One liter has about the same volume as one quart.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Density • Density is a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume. • The units for density are often grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). • You can calculate density using this equation:**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Density • If a sample of aluminum has a mass of 13.5 g and a volume of 5.0 cm3, what is its density? • Insert the known quantities for mass and volume into the density equation. • Density is a property that can be used to identify an unknown sample of matter. Every sample of pure aluminum has the same density.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 A Problem Solving Strategy • When you analyze a problem, you first separate what is known from what is unknown. • Then you decide on a strategy that uses the known data to solve for the unknown. • After you solve a problem, you need to evaluate your answer to decide if it makes sense.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 A Problem Solving Strategy**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 A Problem Solving Strategy**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 A Problem Solving Strategy**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 A Problem Solving Strategy**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Temperature Scales • Scientists use two temperature scales. • The Celsius scale was devised by Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer. • He used the temperatures at which water freezes and boils to establish his scale because these temperatures are easy to reproduce.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Temperature Scales • He defined the freezing point as 0 and the boiling point as 100. • Then he divided the distance between these points into 100 equal units, or degrees Celsius.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Temperature Scales • The Kelvin scale was devised by a Scottish physicist and mathematician, William Thomson, who was known as Lord Kelvin. • A kelvin (K) is the SI base unit of temperature. • On the Kelvin scale, water freezes at about 273 K and boils at about373 K.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Temperature Scales • It is easy to convert from the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale. • For example, the element mercury melts at -39oC and boils at 357oC. • To convert temperatures reported in degrees Celsius into kelvins, you just add 273.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Density • It is equally easy to convert from the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale. • For example, the element bromine melts at 266 K and boils at 332 K. • To convert temperatures reported in kelvins into degrees Celsius, you subtract 273.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Scientific Notation • Scientific notation expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors: a number between 1 and10; and ten raised to a power, or exponent. • The exponent tells you how many times the first factor must be multiplied by ten. • When numbers larger than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is positive.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Scientific Notation • When numbers larger than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is positive. • When numbers smaller than 1 are expressed in scientific notation, the power of ten is negative.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Convert Data into Scientific Notation • Change the following data into scientific notation. • The diameter of the Sun is 1 392 000 km. B. The density of the Sun’s lower atmosphere is 0.000 000 028 g/cm3.**Move the decimal point to produce a factor between 1 and 10.**Count the number of places the decimal point moved and the direction. Data Analysis: Basic Concepts Topic 2 Convert Data into Scientific Notation**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Convert Data into Scientific Notation • Remove the extra zeros at the end or beginning of the factor. • Multiply the result by 10n where n equals the number of places moved. • Remember to add units to the answers.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Adding and Subtracting Using Scientific Notation • When adding or subtracting numbers written in scientific notation, you must be sure that the exponents are the same before doing the arithmetic. • Suppose you need to add 7.35 x 102 m + 2.43 x 102 m.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Adding and Subtracting Using Scientific Notation • You note that the quantities are expressed to the same power of ten. You can add 7.35 and 2.43 to get 9.78 x 102 m. • If the quantities are not expressed to the same power of ten, change one of the numbers to match the power of ten of the other number.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Multiplying and Dividing Using Scientific Notation • Multiplying and dividing also involve two steps, but in these cases the quantities being multiplied or divided do not have to have the same exponent. • For multiplication, you multiply the first factors.Then, you add the exponents. • For division, you divide the first factors. Then, you subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent of the dividend.**Data Analysis: Basic Concepts**Topic 2 Multiplying and Dividing Numbers in Scientific Notation • Suppose you are asked to solve the following problems.**Basic Assessment Questions**Topic 2 Question 1 What is the volume of chemical sample that has a mass of 24 g and a density of 6 g/mL? Answer 4 mL**Basic Assessment Questions**Topic 2 Question 2 Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin. A. 42oC B. 100oC C. 68oC**Basic Assessment Questions**Topic 2 Answers 315 K A. 42oC 373 K B. 100oC 341 K C. 68oC**Basic Assessment Questions**Topic 2 Question 3 Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius. A. 345 K B. 240 K C. 510 K**Basic Assessment Questions**Topic 2 Answers 72oC A. 345 K -33oC B. 240 K 237oC C. 510 K**Basic Assessment Questions**A. B. C. D. Topic 2 Question 4 Simplify the following scientific notation problems.**Basic Assessment Questions**A. B. C. D. Topic 2 Answers**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Additional Concepts**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Dimensional Analysis • Dimensional analysisis a method of problem-solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter. • For example, if you want to convert a temperature in degrees Celsius to a temperature in kelvins, you focus on the relationship between the units in the two temperature scales.**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Dimensional Analysis • A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units.**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Dimensional Analysis • A conversion factor is always equal to 1. • Because a quantity does not change when it is multiplied or divided by 1, conversion factors change the units of a quantity without changing its value.**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Dimensional Analysis • Dimensional analysis often uses conversion factors. • Suppose you want to know how many meters are in 48 km. • You need a conversion factor that relates kilometers to meters. • You know that 1 km is equal to 1000 m.**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Dimensional Analysis • Because you are going to multiply 48 km by the conversion factor, you want to set up the conversion factor so the kilometer units will cancel out.**Data Analysis: Additional Concepts**Topic 2 Using Multiple Conversion Factors • It is common in scientific problems to use dimensional analysis to convert more than one unit at a time. • For example, what is a speed of 550 meters per second in kilometers per minute?