Exercise 1.18 • 5b. Afterthesecondworldwar, thedevelopment of ‘plannedobsolescence’ bytheindustryencouragedcustomersto buy newcarsmoreoftenthantheyneededtobyincreasingthefrequencyof model changes.
Exercise 1.18 • 5c. Later, fromthe 1970s , environmentalcriticism of theindustryfocused on theproduction of inefficientmodelswhichusedtoomuchfuel, contributingto global warming.
Exercise 6 • 6b. Todaytheindustryownssome of thestrongestbrands in theworld. • Some of themoststrikingmodels in theworldarekept in thehands of thisindustry. • Nowadayssome of thestrongestbrandswhichbelongtotheindustry. • Some of thethemost dominant brandsareunderthepossession of theindustry.
TakingNotes • Labeleachentryyoufind • – tokeeptrack of where it comesfrom. (author-pages-URL) • Whiletakingnotes, useyourownwordsorparaphrase. • Toavoidplagiarism • Whilemakingnotes, ifyoufindsomethingyouwanttoquote, put it in quotationmarks. • Distinguissourcematerialfromyourownwords • Labelnoteswith a subjectheading. • To be abletoorderthemwhenneeded, ortokeeptrack of them
Should I quote, paraphraseorsummarize? • Quote- • When • thewording is worthrepeating • rewordingwoulddestroytheoriginality of thesource. • Thesource is writtenby a wellknownauthority of thesubject • Youwanttoemphasizethesource
Quoting • Weavingsomeoneelse’swordsintoyourowntext. • Omitunnecessarydetailswithellipsismarks (…) • Encloseshortquotations in quotationmarks in yourownsentence • Set offlongquotes (longerthan 5 typedlines –in MLA, fortyormorewords in APA) example on pg.410-411
Quoting • Whenquotingpoetry, • 3 linesorlessrun in yourtextenclosed in quotationmarksandlinesseparatedwithslashes • Morethan 3 lines, set off as a longquote. • Indicateanyomissionwithellipsis. • Indicateadditionsorchanges in squarebrackets [ ], forexampleforaddingexplanations.
Guidelinesforsummarizing: • Only main ideas, not detailsshould be included. Justenoughinformation. • Useyourownwords. • Indicatethesource.
Incorporatingsourcematerialsintoyourtext. • Introduceborrowedmaterialclearlywiththeauthorandthesourceifnecessary. • Who is making an assertion, why is thatperson an authority on thesubject. • A signalphrasethatinrroducesborrowedmaterial can be neutral – say orthink- or can suggestsomethingaboutthestance of thewriter, claim, observe, suggestwhichchangethemeaning.
Tense choice • MLA – present tense is requiredbythisstyle • APA – usepast tense orpresent-perfect tense tointroducesourcescomposed in thepast. • Usepresent tense whendiscussingresults of an experimentortoexplainconclusionsthatareagreedupon.
CombiningSources • The article should include views from multiple sources. • You may have to compare and contrast the ideas put forward in the sources.
Exercise on combiningsources • Answers: • A) fourwritersarementioned. Giallombardo (1966) • Heffernan (1972) • Owen (1998) • Fox (1982)
Exercise on combiningsources • B) thewords in italicsaresignalverbsintroducingideas of othersthathavebeensummarized . • Accordingto • Foundthat • Notesthat • Believethat • Statesforexamplethat
Exercise on combiningsources • C) wordsmarking a shiftfromoneviewpointtotheother • Similarly- marking a parallel idea • Othershowever – marking an opposing idea
Exercise on combiningsources • 3a. Direct quote: ‘suchproceduresarenowlabeled «Interferingwithnature»’ • Summary: GM techniquesarenodifferentfrombreedingtechniqueswhichhavepracticedbymanforethousands of years. • 3b. On theotherhand • 3c. Source A statesthat, Source B considersthat, he believesthat
Exercise on combiningsources • Model answerfor 4: • Source C claimsthattourismcreates a significantamount of employmentwhichprovides a welcomealternativetotraditionalworksuch as farming. Howeverisource D pointsthatmany of thesejobsareinsecureandpoorlypaid., beinglikelytocontributetosocialtensions. Thisnegativeview is partlysupportedbysource E, whoinsiststhatdespitesomepositiveexamplesthemorecommonexperience of developingcountrşes is fortourismtoexacerbatesocialillssuch as crimeandprostitution.
Confusingpairs • Acceptorexcept ? • They rather ……….ready-made definitions from sociology with all their lack of clarity, so they put their conclusions at risk because of this ambiguity. • For all variables, the results indicate extremely low correlations between distance and GPA and distance and all other student and neighborhood characteristics, ……………for attendance.
Confusingpairs • Close (adj) or Close (verb) • We build on and depart from this work through a ……….analysis of the ways in which raced consciousness inflects developing understandings of cultural responsiveness. • We ………….by commenting on three special aspects of the data analyzed in this study that we think merit attention from researchers seeking to understand classroom instruction.
Confusingpairs • ComplimentorComplement ? • That’s the best …………..they can give me, especially in a high-level class. • I provide a brief overview of each, as followed by an explanation of how the frameworks …………. each other.
Confusingpairs • Affectoreffect ? • The net ………….of the reduction in sample size was to limit inferences to a population of students • Another focus of this article is whether financial factors also ……………. performance beyond the first year.
Confusingpairs • Economicoreconomical • Our theoretical perspective is informed by research on ……………….production function (input-output) studies. • The concept presupposes that all ………………substitutions among resources will be made [this is relative scarcity].
Confusingpairs • Its (pronoun) / It’s (pronoun +verb) • In particular response to ……..defeat in Edwards, the antievolution movement changed ……..approach yet again by formulating the concept of ID. • So …………not the case that in multilateral schools, watered-down versions of academic or vocational programs are offered.
Confusingpairs • Loseorloose • Implementation scholars have used …………………coupling and decoupling to account for the relatively weak influence of government policy on school and classroom practice. • When lower ability students are tracked, they ………….the opportunity to benefit from positive peer effects resulting from coming into contact with motivated and study-involved, more able students.
Confusingpairs • Quiteorquiet • Among the 1,225, 81.7% had completed a CD curriculum in high school, …………..similar to the percentage of students completing a CD curriculum in the original sample (82.1%). • The only exception to the …………..atmosphere of individual work was during the condensed lecture, when a few students had the chance to ask questions about the material in front of the class.
Confusingpairs • Principalorprinciple? • In …………….., however, the instructional model also holds within school types. • She is currently the ……………..investigator or co-principal investigator on several research grants investigating effective interventions for students with reading difficulties and students who are English language learners.