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Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing

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  1. Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing Avoiding Plagiarism

  2. Pre-Test • What does it mean to plagiarize? • What does it mean to paraphrase? • How do you paraphrase something without plagiarizing?

  3. Knowing the Difference • There are 3 ways to incorporate other’s writing into your own writing: • Quoting • Paraphrasing • Summarizing

  4. ‘’ ‘’ Quotations ‘’ ‘’ • “Quoting a source is a way of weaving someone else’s exact words into your own text.” • “You need to reproduce the source exactly.” AND • Give credit to your source by naming the author and including parenthetical documentation at the end of your sentence. • (MLA documentation will be discussed later in the research unit)

  5. Can I make a change to someone else’s words? • Yes. If a quote will fit more smoothly into your writing by making a slight change, you may do so. For example: • If you need to omit unnecessary details, you indicate that words are missing with an ellipses. . . • If you need to change or add words in a quote to make the quote fit grammatically within your sentence, use brackets [ ]

  6. Ellipses . . . For Omissions • If you need to omit any unnecessary details/words, you indicate that words are missing with an ellipsis . . . • Ex: Original Text – “Scout, simply by the nature of the work, every lawyer gets at least one case in his lifetime that affects him personally. This one’s mine, I guess. You might hear some ugly talk about it at school, but do one thing for me if you will: you just hold your head high and keep those fists down. No matter what anybody says to you, don’t you let ‘em get your goat. Try fighting with your head for a change” (Lee 101). • Scout . . . every lawyer gets at least one case in his lifetime that affects him personally. This one’s mine . . . You might here some ugly talk about it at school, but . . . hold your head high and keep those fists down. . . . Try fighting with your head for a change” (Lee 101).

  7. Brackets [ ] For Additions/Changes • When you find it necessary to make changes or additions to quoted material, use a set of brackets to signal the change. For ex: • Original Text: “Influenced by Godwin, Mary Shelley developed a lifelong habit of deep and extensive reading and research.” • Revised Text: “Influenced by [her father, William]Godwin, Mary Shelley developed a lifelong habit of deep and extensive reading and research.”

  8. Paraphrase • When you paraphrase, you • restate information from a source in your own words and sentence structure. • Paraphrase when • the source material is important, but the original wording is not. • A paraphrase is • about the same length as the original text because it includesall the main points of your source.

  9. Paraphrase • When you paraphrase, you • must give creditto your source • Signal that you have paraphrased information by setting up the statement (by naming the author) and providing parenthetical documentation after the sentence. • You must do more than make slight changes to the wording and sentence structure, otherwise, you are risking plagiarism.

  10. Tips for Paraphrasing • Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. • Set the original aside, and practice writing your paraphrasefrom memory. • First change the sentence structure, then change the words. • Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.

  11. Why Paraphrase? • It is a valuable skill. • “It helps you control the temptation to quote too much” (The OWL at Purdue). • “The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original” (The OWL at Purdue).

  12. Compare this original text to the paraphrase. • Original Text: • The minds of children are “wired” to acquire language automatically (undergoing exactly the same stages, no matter what the language is). From ages 1-5, kids can acquire any possible language (from English to Chinese to Hawaiian), and acquiring multiple languages is no problem, provided children have enough exposure. From 5-10, kids still have an easy time, but once adolescence hits, most people lose the ability to pick up languages easily. • Pyatt, 2000 • Paraphrased Text: • The minds of infants are “configured”to acquire language automatically (undergoing exactly the same processes, regardless of language). From ages 1-5, kids can acquire any possible language (from English to Tibetan to Navaho), and acquiring multiple languages is not difficult, provided children are exposed to them enough. From 5-10, kids still can learn languages easily, but once adolescence begins, most people lose the ability to acquire languages easily.

  13. This isn’t a paraphrase; this is plagiarism. WHY? • The minds of children are “wired” to acquire language automatically (undergoing exactly the same stages, no matter what the language is). From ages 1-5, kids can acquire any possible language (from English to Chinese to Hawaiian), and acquiring multiple languages is no problem, provided children have enough exposure. From 5-10, kids still have an easy time, but once adolescence hits, most people lose the ability to pick up languages easily. • Pyatt, 2000 • The minds of infants are "configured“ to acquire language automatically (undergoing exactly the same processes, regardless of language). From ages 1-5, kids can acquire any possible language (from English to Tibetanto Navaho), and acquiring multiple languages is not difficult, provided childrenare exposed to them enough. From 5-10, kids still can learn languages easily, but once adolescence begins, most people lose the ability to acquirelanguages easily.

  14. Compare this original text to the paraphrase. • Original Text: Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. • From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348. • How is this paraphrase: The use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon impact, a helmet can reduce accidental injury by as much as 85%, saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are school children ("Bike Helmets" 348).

  15. Compare this original text to the paraphrase. • Original Text:Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. • How is this paraphrase? • Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. • NOPE. Plagiarism.

  16. Compare this original text to the paraphrase. • Original Text:Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. • Legitimate Paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

  17. You try it. • On a separate sheet of paper, write a DETAILED, 5 sentence paragraph about one of the following topics. • a memorable birthday party • an embarrassing moment • your daily routine • your first kiss • your driving test • your favorite activity • (any other topic with teacher approval) • At the bottom of your paragraph, sign your first and last name.

  18. Now, trade papers with someone near you. • Carefully read your partner’s paragraph. • Use the rules for writing a legitimate paraphrase and paraphrase your partner’s paragraph. • Let’s read and discuss.

  19. Extra Paraphrasing Practice: Paraphrase this passage. • In time, his love of words would give Jay-Z more No. 1 albums than Elvis and fuel the realization of his boyhood dream: becoming, as he wrote in one of his earliest lyrics, the poet with ''rhymes so provocative'' that he was the ''key in the lock'' -- ''the king of hip-hop.''

  20. Extra Paraphrasing Practice: Paraphrase this passage. • Shawn Carter's past would supply the subject matter for Jay-Z's best-known lyrics, and he notes here that when he began writing about his life and the lives of the people around him, ''the rhymes helped me twist some sense out of those stories'': ''flesh and blood became words, ideas, metaphors, fantasies and jokes.''

  21. Summarizing • Summarize when • you need to use onlythe main ideas of a larger, more detailedtext, • A summary is • a brief snapshot of a larger text • When you summarize, • you must give credit to your source by including parenthetical documentation.

  22. An Acceptable Summary: • Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. • Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

  23. Remember! • Direct Quote = • When there is NO better way to say it, quote it. Minor changes/omissions are okay provided you signal with . . . or [ ]. Always name the author and include parenthetical documentation. • Paraphrase = • Original source’s ideas, thoughts, and words are expressed in YOUR OWN WORDS and SENTENCE STRUCTURE. AND your paraphrase is approximately the same length as the original. AND you give credit to original source & include parenthetical documentation. • Summaries = • You are “shrinking” the more detailed, original source • A very concise, broad overview expressed in YOUR OWN WORDS; give credit to source & include P.D.

  24. Ground Rules • A quote cannot begin or end a body paragraph. • A quote cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must be paired with your OWN voice. • A quote must be embedded smoothly into your OWN sentence.

  25. Credits / Sources • Source: Norton Field Guide to Writing, 2008, Bullock, Daly-Goggin, and Weinberg • Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/