AKS 43:Age of Revolutions & Rebellions Chapter 21.5 – Pages 614-617 Chapter 22.4 – Pages 640-645 Chapter 23 – Pages 651-675 Chapter 24.1 – Pages 681-686
Warm Up 1: Test Corrections • Write the question • Write the answer • Write where you found the answer • ie: notes, characteristics of Absolutism, warm ups, AKS 42 sheet.
What would you do? If the school started forcing students to pray a prayer asking God/gods for blessings during the moment of silence? If students refused they would be held after school until they said the prayer. If Mill Creek charged you a fee for being tardy to school and making up assignments? If the fees were not paid your credits would be suspended for advancement to the next grade. What avenues do students have to instigate change in the school society?
EnglandDefying Parliament: • James I (1603-1625): • Struggled w/ Parliament over $ • Centralized and consolidated the power of the government and tried to win over the aristocracy by giving them new offices and titles. • Not a lot of money to pay for it • Conducted foreign policy without consulting Parliament • Agreed to new trans. of Bible • Granted the charter for the founding of Jamestown, which was named after him
EnglandDefying Parliament: Charlie! • Charles I (1625-1649): • Suspended Parliament and attempted to rule through his advisers. • Collected taxes without the consent of Parliament • Imprisoned those who refused to pay • Quartered troops in citizens’ home • Goals: • Rid the nation of Puritans • Root out the “country” opposition
EnglandDefying Parliament: Charles I • Charles needed money to defend the kingdom against a recent Scottish invasion. • Scots did not like his religious policies • Parliament demanded more rights • Forced Charles to sign Petition of Right: • Not imprison subjects w/o due cause • Not levy taxes w/o Parl.’s consent • Not house soldiers in private homes • Not impose martial law during peacetime • Set forth idea that law was higher than king • After he receives the money he ignores the document and will try to arrest the leaders of Parliament for the affront to royal power
EnglandEnglish Civil War (1642-1649): • Background/Causes: • Parl. passed laws to limit royal power – king outraged – arrested Parl. leaders – mob began to form • Loyal to Charles – Royalists/Cavaliers • Puritan supporters of Parl. – Roundheads
EnglandEnglish Civil War (1642-1649): • Result: • Roundheads win • Oliver Cromwell: • Leader of the Roundheads • Roundhead General • Tried, beheaded Charles for treason – 1649 • First time was publicly executed occurred in history • Est. commonwealth (repub. form of gov’t)
England (1660) • Charles II: • Rule known as Restoration • (Parliament restored the monarchy as an institution) • Habeas Corpus – • Prisoners must be charged with a crime • A judge must formally charge a prisoner • Prisoners could not be held without trials • Navigation Acts in the American colonies • Since Charles II did not have any children, the throne would pass to his Catholic brother, James II. This contributed to growing tensions in England.
England (1685-1689) • James II & Causes: • James offended subjects b/c he boasted his Catholicism • Dissolved Parl. b/c he appointed Cath. officials to high office (against law) • Glorious Revolution: • William & Mary (James’ daughter) led army to London; James II fled (bloodless overthrow)
England (1689) • Results – Limits on Monarchs: • Became const. monarchy • English Bill of Rights passed • Made clear the limits of royal power • included provisions that made Parliament stronger than the monarchy • monarch could not suspend laws without Parliament’s consent • monarch needed Parliament’s approval to raise taxes and maintain army • monarch had to summon Parliament frequently • monarch could not interfere with Parliamentary elections • protected rights of individuals • guaranteed trial by jury of anyone accused of crime • outlawed cruel and unusual punishment • limited amount of bail that could be imposed • Cabinet developed to keep gov’t from halting to a standstill
English Revolution • Historical implications • In England a body of political thought emerged that argued that human liberty can be ensured within the confines of a powerful national state • One governed by mere mortals and not by divinely sanctioned and absolute kings • At the heart of the enlightenment ideal lay the notion that the state serves the interests of those who support and create a viable alternative to absolutism • Nations can survive without an absolute monarch
English Revolution Sandwich: James Sandwich James I Charles I Charles II Oliver Cromwell James II William and Mary Plate
Warm Up: The English Civil War What was the Glorious Revolution? Why did it occur? What is the new form of government established after the Glorious Revolution? Why is the English Bill of Rights so important? What is the Habeas Corpus Act? How does it impact modern governments? What was “restored” during the Restoration? Who “restored” the institution? What is the enduring historical significance of the English Revolution of the seventeenth century?
American Revolution • Background England • England extended its hold all over the world taking control of parts of Asia, India, Canada and islands in the Caribbean. • Britain wanted the colonies to provide the crown with money and they did. • The government would only allow the sale of goods from the colonies to the England. The colonists were allowed to buy the goods from other countries but only after high tariffs were imposed.
United States (1776) • Causes: • Trade, tax laws seen as unfair by colonists • Britain wanted the colonist to help pay for the French and Indian War • Basic conflict: Did the colonies exist to enrich Britain, or were they entitled to trade for their own profit? • Boston Tea Party incident & shutting down of Boston • Battle at Lexington & Concord • Colonists are upset because they are not represented in Parliament • Enlightenment Influence: • King George broke social contract • Dec. of Ind. based on ideas of Locke & others from Enlightenment (main author: Thomas Jefferson)
United States (1776) • Changing Idea:
United States (1776) • Success: • Colonists motivation greater • British generals made mistakes • Time – British citizens got tired of fighting • French helped at Yorktown • Americans were skillful fighters
United States (1776) • Results: • Americans won ind. against King George III • Articles of Confederation: • Failed because it only allowed one body of government • To prevent the central government from becoming too powerful colonial delegates established the Federal system • Federal System: a government system in which power is divided between national and state governments. • Constitution: • Based on theories of Locke, Montesquieu, & Rousseau • Bill of Rights: • 1st 10 amend. to Const. • Protected basic rights as freedom of speech, press, assembly, & religion ( ideas of Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke)
Warm Up: American Revolution What was the first governing document of the United States? Why was it unsuccessful? In order to create a “check” or controls on the central government, what type of system or government was formed? Define it. Which philosophes’ ideas are most prevalent in the Declaration of Independence? Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? What are the causes of the American Revolution? Name the monarch whom the Americans had to overthrow in order to obtain independence? What is the American Bill of Rights? What historical document does it closely resemble? According to Locke and Rousseau if a government violates the _______ ________, its citizens can rise against it. Why were the Americans successful in their fight for independence? Name the first country to put the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Voltaire into practice.
Video What were the causes of the French Revolution? What is the name of the political and social system of France before the revolution? Name who is in each Estate of the Estates General. How many votes did each estate have in the assembly? Why was the Third Estate upset with the number of votes allotted to it. Who paid most of the taxes in France before the French Revolution? Why did Louis XVI call for a meeting of the Estates General for the first time in 175 years? Why did the Third Estate form the National Assembly? What happened on July 14, 1789? What type of monarchy is established with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution of 1791? Name the French document that said every man is born free and equal is similar to the American Declaration of Independence. What is the slogan of the revolution?
Warm Up: CP Review What is Mercantilism? What would it encourage a country to do? What do colonies provide a nation? What was the effect of the cancellation of the Edict of Nantes? What did Peter the Great do politically? What are the core beliefs of the Enlightenment? Who was Louis XIV’s finance minister? How was Russia predating ,Peter’s reign, different from Western Europe ? What is a salon? Where did the ideas of the Enlightenment spread? What is an absolute monarch? Why did they become so powerful?
Warm Up: G/H Review What is Mercantilism? What would it encourage a country to do? What do colonies provide a nation? What was the effect of the cancellation of the Edict of Nantes? What did Peter the Great do politically? What are the core beliefs of the Enlightenment?
French Revolution • Four Stages: • Old Regime • Moderate Stage 1789-91 • The Radical Stage 1792-94 • Napoleon becomes dictator and emperor
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) THE OLD REGIME • First Estate: • Clergy • Enlightenment ideas bad • Second Estate: • Rich nobles • Disagreed about Enlightenment idea • Third Estate: • Bourgeoisie (middle class), peasant farmers • No power to influence gov’t • Embraced Enlightenment ideas • Resented 1st and 2nd estates • Paid almost all of the taxes Embraced the Enlightenment ideals more closely
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) Economic Crisis • Poor harvest hurt the economy • Poor harvest hurt the economy • peasants were starving and extremely poor • nobles increased manorial dues, making the peasantry despise the whole hierarchy • Huge Debt • result of Louis XIV’s spending & loans • wars to expand France’s borders • The Palace of Versailles • Louis XV • extravagant personal spending and spending on wars (Seven Years War-France lost its colonies in Canada and India to Great Britain)
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette • Inherited debt from previous kings • Extravagant spenders themselves • Louis weak leader, indecisive • Marie spent a lot of money on gowns, jewels, etc. • Known as “Madame Deficit”
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) • Influence of Enlightenment Ideas • Enlightenment ideas of equality and social justice influenced people of France to question the absolute monarchy (Old Regime) in France. They were also inspired by the American Revolution which showed the enlightenment ideals in action.
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) Estates-General: • Assembly of reps from all 3 estates • Solution to $ problem - impose new tax on nobility – assembly called to approve it in 1789 • First meeting in 175 years
France (1789)Revolution Begins (Causes) • At the meeting of the Estates General the estates argued over procedure and did not address the taxation issue • Problem: Third estates wants members of the estates general to vote as individuals on issues. This would allow the members of the third estate to ally with the liberal nobles and clergyman. • The first and second estates detested the idea which would weaken their power base and allow them to be out voted
France (1789): Moderate StageRevolution Begins (Causes) National Assembly : • Formed by members of 3rd Estate when they were locked out of the meeting hall of the Estates General • Tennis Court Oath • – broke down door to indoor tennis court &vowed not to leave until new constitution was written • Act proclaimed end of abs. mon. & beginning of rep. gov’t
France: Moderate Stage Revolution Begins July 14, 1789 (Causes) Storming of Bastille: (Spark that starts the Rev.) • Louis sends troops to France – word of them coming creates riots • Mobs wanted Bastille’s supply of gunpowder to defend the National Assembly – stormed the prison • killed prison guards, & paraded in streets with their heads • 1st major act of revolution
Storming of the Bastille • Importance • Symbol of the Old Regime’s darkness and despotism had fallen • Forced Louis to give up his plan – reduced King’s power • Saved National Assembly • Became great symbolic act of revolution for French people • Some court nobles flee the country
France (1789): Moderate Stage Revolution Begins (Causes) Great Fear: • Senseless panic – peasants became outlaws in fear that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants
Did You get it…. • What were the three estates in France? • Why was each group in the 3rd estate dissatisfied with the Old Regime? • Why was the fall of the Bastille important?
Great Fear: August Decrees of the National Assembly • August Decrees of the National Assembly • Did away with the special privileges of the nobility: • Exclusive hunting rights • Tax exemptions, • monopoly on highest offices • Manorial courts • The right to demand labor services from peasants • The decrees put an end to the Old Regime • They also create: the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen • Louis XVI hesitated to approve the decrees which will lead to a second uprising • Peasant women, demanding bread, marched on Versailles – demanded Louis & Marie return to Paris
France (1789): Moderate Stage Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizens • Similar to & inspired by U.S. Dec. of Ind. • Slogan – “Liberty, Equality, & Fraternity”
France: Moderate Stage • The Rights of Man (1789) • Document declared “men are born free and remain free and equal in rights” – also freedom of speech, religion • The goal of government was to preserve the above rights as well as liberty, property security, and resistance to oppression
The Assembly adopted many reforms • A limited monarchy (1791) • Monarch lost absolute power, but still has executive power to enforce laws. • Departments or districts of France created • 83 districts, abolished the old districts of the Middle Ages. • A new constitution for France (9/1791) • Guaranteed all French citizens equal treatment under the law • Citizens paying less than a specified amount in taxes could not vote • 30% of the males over the age of twenty five were excluded by this stipulation • Only the more well to do citizens qualified to sit in the Legislative Assembly, a unicameral parliament created to succeed the National Assembly
The Assembly adopted many reforms • A state-controlled church (1791) • Catholic church lost its lands and its political independence • Church officials and priests were elected by property owners and paid as state officials • The new laws alarmed many peasants and drove a wedge between them and the bourgeoisie
Warm Up: French Revolution 1 What were the causes of the French Revolution? What is the name of the political and social system of France before the revolution? Name who is in each Estate of the Estates General. How many votes did each estate have in the assembly? Why was the Third Estate upset with the number of votes allotted to it. Who paid most of the taxes in France before the French Revolution? Why did Louis XVI call for a meeting of the Estates General for the first time in 175 years? Why did the Third Estate form the National Assembly? What happened on July 14, 1789? What type of monarchy is established with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution of 1791? Name the French document that said every man is born free and equal is similar to the American Declaration of Independence. What is the slogan of the revolution?
G/H Warm Up Review 2 What are the following numbers : XIV? XVI? VII? Who said that liberty was everyone’s birthright but that civilization or government reduced liberty? What did Peter the Great do culturally? What was China’s trading policy in the 14th century? Why did kings and queen of Europe assume unlimited power? What class in France embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment the most? Why was the Estates General convened after 175 years? What were the long term causes of the French Revolution? What was the immediate cause? Why was the National Assembly formed? Name the document that guaranteed freedom of speech and religion in France?
CP Warm Up Review 2 Who unified Japan and established a militaristic government? What is the name of the government? Why was the Edict of Nantes issued? Who is the Sun King? Who said every man was born with the natural rights of life liberty, and property? He also said it is the job of the government to protect these natural rights. What are the following numbers : XIV? XVI? VII? Which estate paid almost all of the taxes in France during the Old Regime? What class in France embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment the most? Why was the National Assembly formed? What kind of government was established in 1791 with the new constitution?