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Objectives. Neutrality Towards Europe. Initially most Americans supported the French Revolution since it was in the name of creating a Republic The Reign of Terror - Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality –

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neutrality towards europe
Neutrality Towards Europe
  • Initially most Americans supported the French Revolution since it was in the name of creating a Republic
  • The Reign of Terror -
  • Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality –
    • Hamilton persuaded Washington to acknowledge that America’s Revolutionary War treaty with France was voided, since it was made with France’s now deposed monarchy
    • Hamilton saw Britain as a profitable trade partner that must be maintained
  • France and England go to war after Jacobin led French government declares war on all Monarchies. Since America was the largest neutral shipper of supplies, made them a military liability for both sides
tenuous foreign relations
Tenuous Foreign Relations
  • Citizen Genet Affair –
    • Jefferson resigns Secretary of State post over criticism of his support of French Revolution, and his ongoing feud with Hamilton
    • Genet eventually returns to America when the French government is overthrown
  • Pinckney’s Treaty –
    • Negotiated by diplomat Thomas Pinckney
native americans resist
Native Americans Resist
  • Natives were not included in the Treaty of Paris and did not accept America’s land acquisitions.
    • They still claimed their lands in the new states created by the Northwest Ordinance
  • Little Turtle –
    • Miami Confederacy wins small battles across Ohio until Washington sends a larger force to fend off the Native threat
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers –
    • Treaty of Grenville – Miami Confederation gives up land in Ohio in exchange for money and goods
retirement of washington
Retirement of Washington
  • The Farewell Address -
    • Washington unwilling to serve a 3rd term with such a political division between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
    • Retires to Mount Vernon, Virginia
    • Jay’s Treaty –
      • GB made few concessions, refusing to stop raiding American ships or recruiting captured American sailors for the British navy
      • French see treaty as a violation of the French-American alliance
replacing a legend
Replacing a Legend
  • Election of 1796 – first Presidential election with opposing parties. John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson in a narrow race, but by electoral college law, Jefferson is named Vice President for coming in 2nd place
    • The rise of political parties had caused a divide within the executive branch, a problem that the framers didn’t anticipate
  • John Adams–
  • Sectionalism –
  • Growing danger of sectionalism arises. Nearly all voters from the North voted for Adams, South voted for Jefferson, indicating a divided nation
anti french feeling resonates
Anti-French Feeling Resonates
  • Jay’s Treaty with the British angered the French, threat of war begins to loom
  • Adams sends 3 man delegation to Paris to negotiate a solution. French had little patience for the concerns of America
    • Reign of Terror had ended, and France was run by a 5 man executive called the Directory.
    • General Napoleon Bonaparte had conquered much of Western Europe
  • XYZ Affair –
  • Adam invests heavily in the creation of American Navy, to protect shipping interests
adams provokes criticism
Adams Provokes Criticism
  • Eleventh Amendment (1798) – a state can not be sued in federal court by a citizen of another state or by citizens of foreign countries
  • Distrust of immigrants grows, fear that French spies are trying to overthrow the government. Many foreigners were Democratic-Republican by party allegiance, creating distrust of Federalist intentions
  • Alien and Sedition Acts –
    • Democratic-Republicans saw as a violation of 1st amendment rights of free speech, Federalists feared loss of unity was worth curbing the 1st amendment
  • Nullifications –
    • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions demanded the ability to void national laws, known as a nullifications, but are denied
death of washington
Death of Washington
  • Washington dies of pneumonia in 1799 and is buried at Mount Vernon
    • The US moves on after the death of the Father of the nation
  • Bonaparte, now 1st consul of France, declares 10 days of mourning to try to improve US-French relations