Chapter 10A Deadly Meeting “How might the differences in Worldview contribute to the dominance of one culture over another?”
Chapter 10: A Deadly Meeting • Think about it…based on what you have learned about the Spanish and the Aztecs, what aspects of technology, religion, and culture do you think might affect the meeting between them? • Hernan Cortez was a Spanish Conquistador, pretend that you are giving a speech introducing him at a banquet to the King and Queen of Spain. Write a draft of the speech using the information in your text found on page 216 of your text:
EXAMINE the MAP on page 217 in your text book. Answer the following questions based on this map. • Using the information on this map, make a TIMELINE of Spanish settlements in the Americas? What does this timeline tell you about the peoples Cortes met on his way to the capital city of the Aztecs? • What is the purpose of this map? How do the title, the legend, and the content contribute to understanding its purpose?
Cortes was a skilled conquistador. He thought the Americas would be a good place to acquire his fortune and become a powerful ruler. Fill in the following chart outlining the formula he used to conquer the Americas:
Who was Romeo Dallaire? • Do you think we was a hero? Why or why not? • What qualities make someone a hero?
Fill in the blanks (page 221): • Cortes remained in _____________. After sometime he wanted to explore the land mass west of Cuba. The governor of Cuba, __________________ sent out two expeditions which brought back exciting news. This was the opportunity Cortes had been waiting for. What civilization do you think the expeditions were talking about? ____________________________________ • Write a report on what the Captain of the ships would have reported when coming across this “new civilization”. What would the expeditions have seen? Why would they be so excited?
Read page 222 – Respond to the OVER TO YOU question # 3 on page 222. • Imagine you were a fighter in Cortés’s army. Write a diary entry about Cortés’s decision to sink his ships. Now imagine you were an Aztec who witnessed the ships sinking. Write a brief message to Moctezuma about the event. • Some points to consider for both the diary entry and the message include the following: • Did Cortés have any other options besides sinking the ships? • Why was Cortés so concerned with the grumbling of his men? • Was Cortés so insecure in leadership that he needed to worry about his army leaving him? • Was Cortés treating his men in such a way that he had a reason to worry about revolt?
An Unequal Fight • Complete the following chart using pages 223-229: • In what ways did technology and disease contribute to the Spanish dominance over the Aztecs
Weapons • The Aztec weapons included war clubs, wooden spears, atlatls (spearthrowers), bows • and arrows and slings. The Spanish used swords, halberds ( long spears with metal blades, an axe point and a hook ), and crossbows • Because the Aztecs • weapons were mostly wooden, they could not withstand the force of metal weaponsusedby the Spanish. The Spanish also had muskets and cannons and they rode on horses which gave them further advantages.
Strategy • Cortés established a colony on the coast as a power base. On his march to the Aztec empire, he either conquered or befriended other Indigenous peoples. Totonac, and Tlaxcalan, warriors joined with the Spanish against the Aztecs. The Cholulans, who were allies of the Aztecs, were conquered so they could not join forces with the Aztecs. • Cortés also defeated the Tabascan people. Malinche, a slave of the Tabascanpeople, became an intermediary, advisor and spy for Cortés. She became an essential part of Cortés’s success. Cortés made sure that the Aztecs saw and heard his muskets and cannons at their first meeting together. This created fear amongst the Aztecs. Cortés and his warriors enter the city in a friendly manner and then later turn on Moctezumaand the Aztec people.
Disease: • Disease also gave the Spanish an advantage. The Aztecs had no resistance to European diseases like smallpox. An epidemic broke out in Tenochtitlan at a critical time in the conflict. Many Aztecs died which weakened the ability to defend the city and empire. • Later many Aztecs became sick from lack of food and drinking contaminated water.
Read ZOOM IN page 227. Answer the three bulleted questions on page 227. • What was the primary effect of the epidemic? • The primary effect of the epidemic was the quick death of about one-third of the population. • What was the secondary effect? • The secondary effect was that many others died of starvation as there was no one to search for food and prepare it. • Why do you think there is no mention of medical help? • The Aztecs would not have any idea how to treat a disease they had never before encountered. Medical science was limited during this time period. There was little anyone could do to treat smallpox until the vaccination was developed in 1796.
Using pages 229-234 Create a timeline of events for the battle and invasion of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec Empire: • Now that you have a timeline, write a newscast from the Aztec point of view during the Spanish conquest. Be sure to include details on weaponry and smallpox in your report.