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MOSFET Scaling. ECE G201. next. Most Simple Model: Constant Field Scaling. E = V DD /L after scaling becomes E = (V DD / a )/(L/ a ) …where a >1. Impurity Concentration Scaling must also follow length scaling for depletion widths.

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most simple model constant field scaling


Most Simple Model: Constant Field Scaling


after scaling becomes

E = (VDD/a)/(L/a)

…where a>1

impurity concentration scaling must also follow length scaling for depletion widths
Impurity Concentration Scalingmust also follow length scaling for depletion widths

Recall, that the source and drain are heavily doped and

therefore the junctions are one-sided (n+p for NMOS):

W = (2eVDD/qNA)1/2 …unscaled FET

W/a = (2eVDD / a2qNA)1/2

= [2e(VDD/a)/qaNA]1/2

Therefore, the doping levels must increase by a factor a if

the depletion widths are to scale down.

historical scaling moore s law number of transistors chip doubles every 18 mo
Historical Scaling“Moore’s Law:” number of transistors/chip doubles every 18 mo.

1 generation: ~18 mo.

L decreases by 0.65/generation

(a = 1/0.65 = 1.5)

VDD decreases by 0.85/generation

Therefore, constant field scaling (VDD/L) is not strictly followed.

generalized scaling
Generalized Scaling

Length: a = 1/0.65 = 1.5

Voltage: b = 1/0.85 = 1.2  Electric field:E increases x1.25

Doping: ba = x1.8 (!) note: not strictly followed

junction leakage current tunneling current due to highly doped drain body junctions




Junction Leakage CurrentTunneling current due to highly doped Drain-Body junctions




Recall: tunneling

T = Kexp(-2kW)

gate leakage current t ox 0 means large tunneling current
Gate Leakage Currenttox 0 means large tunneling current

A large oxide capacitance

is needed to control the channel charge and subthreshold current:

Vch = VGS(Cox’+CB’)/Cox’

…where Cox’ = eox/tox

since tox is limited by tunneling, research is focused on alternate gate dielectric materials with larger permittivity (“high-K”).

high k issues
High-K Issues
  • Large number of interface traps, Qit
    • impacts VT control and repeatability
  • Process integration
    • SiO2 is relatively easy (thermal oxidation of Si)
  • Potential materials:
    • HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2,BST….?
scaling directions i soi dst depleted substrate transistor
Scaling Directions (I)SOI (DST, depleted substrate transistor)

Very thin body region (Tsi = L/3) makes the source and drain spreading resistance (RS) large.

Raised S/D improves ID (next)

Improves subthreshold slope, S

and decreases Ioff

Also decreases CjE

…and IJE

Scaling Directions (II)The “FinFET” moves from a single gate to double and triple gate structures and also multiple channels.
advantages control of the channel must be fully depleted improved r s r d due to thicker si body
Advantages: Control of the channel:must be fully depleted!Improved RS, RD due to thicker Si body


prevents “top” gate

Fin (30nm)


mosfet future one part of
MOSFET Future (One Part of)
  • International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2007 update.
  • Look at size, manufacturing technique, future devices.

THE INTERNATIONAL ROADMAP COMMITTEE POSITION ON TECHNOLOGY PACING In previous editions of the ITRS, the term “technology node” (or “hpXX node”) was used in an attempt to provide a single, simple indicator of overall industry progress in integrated circuit (IC) feature scaling. It was specifically defined as the smallest half-pitch of contacted metal lines on any product. Historically, DRAM has been the product which, at a given time, exhibited the tightest contacted metal pitch and, thus, it “set the pace” for the ITRS technology nodes. However, we are now in an era in which there are multiple significant drivers of scaling and believe that it would be misleading to continue with a single highlighted driver, including DRAM.For example, along with half-pitch advancements, design factors have also rapidly advanced in Flash memory cell design, enabling additional acceleration of functional density. Flash technology has also advanced the application of electrical doubling of density of bits, enabling increased functional density independent of lithography half-pitch drivers.A second example is given by the MPU/ASIC products, for which the speed performance driver continues to be the gate-length isolated feature size, which requires the use of leading-edge lithography and also additional etch technology to create the final physical dimension. Significant confusion relative to the historical ITRS node definition continues to be an issue in many press releases and other documents that have referred to “node acceleration” based on other, frequently undefined, criteria. Of course, we now expect different IC parameters to scale at different rates, and it is certainly legitimate to recognize that many of these have product-specific implications. In the 2007 ITRS, we will continue the practice of eliminating references to the term “technology node.” As mentioned above, the IRC has recommended that the only standard header will be year of first production, and DRAM M1 half-pitch is just one among several historical indicators of IC scaling. With this latest change to standard ITRS table format policy, it is hoped that the ITRS will not contribute to industry confusion related to the concept of “technology node.” Of course, “node” terminology will continue to be used by others. Hopefully, they will define their usage within the context of the application to the technology of a specific product.


Scaling (a, e)


Subtheshold Current

High-K gate dielectric

Spreading Resistance (Raised S/D)