self adaptive intelligent sensors and systems from theory to practical design l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 73

Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 172 Views
  • Uploaded on

Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design. Prof. Sergey Y. Yurish, Technical University of Catalonia (CDEI-UPC Barcelona). IEEE International Workshop on RObotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE’ 2008), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 17 October 2008. Outline.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design' - emma


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
self adaptive intelligent sensors and systems from theory to practical design

Self-Adaptive Intelligent Sensors and Systems: From Theory to Practical Design

Prof. Sergey Y. Yurish,

Technical University of Catalonia

(CDEI-UPC Barcelona)

IEEE International Workshop on RObotic and Sensors Environments (ROSE’ 2008), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 17 October 2008

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Modern Sensors
  • Sensor Interfacing
  • Self-Adaptive Intelligent SensorsSystemsDesign Methodology
  • Practical Examples
  • Further Perspectives and Technologies
  • Conclusions

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

introduction
Introduction
  • Intelligent (or smart) sensor systems are of great interest in many fields of industry
  • Classical approach to such systems means that the information is in the amplitude of a voltage or current signal
  • Another approach relies on resonant phenomena and variable oscillators: information is embedded in the frequency or time parameters of signal

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

smart sensors world market trends
Smart Sensors World Market Trends
  • According to new sensors market studies (Freedonia Group), the US sensor demand will grow 4.3 percent annually through 2012 and will reach $12.1 billion in 2010
  • According to Frost & Sullivan the forecast for North American Smart Sensors Market is to reach $635.2 million in 2010
  • The past few decades have witnessed an explosive growth in sensors and sensor-based applications which has led to a greater demand for sensor interfacing integrated circuits (ICs)
  • Strong growth expected for sensors based on MEMS-technologies, intelligent sensors and sensors with bus capabilities

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

smart sensor
Smart Sensor

Smart sensor (or intelligent sensor)is an electronic deviceincluding sensing element, interfacing, signal processing and one- or several intelligent functions as self-testing, self-identification, self-validation or self-adaptation

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

smart sensor6

Signal conditioning

Sensing

element

C

  • DSP
  • ADC or FDC
  • Communications

MUX

Smart Sensor

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

sensors ifsa study 2008
Sensors (IFSA study 2008)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

quasi digital sensors
Quasi-Digital Sensors

Quasi-digital sensorsare discrete frequency-time domain sensors with frequency, period, duty-cycle, time interval, pulse number, pulse width modulated (PWM) or phase shift output

Tx

fx

t

f

PWM

Nx

f1/f2

D.c.

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

quasi digital sensors9
Quasi-Digital Sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

frequency advantages
Frequency Advantages
  • High Noise Immunity
  • High Power Signal
  • Wide Dynamic Range
  • High Reference Accuracy
  • Simple Interfacing
  • Simple Integration and Coding
  • Multiparametricity

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

temperature sensors
Temperature Sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

pressure sensors
Pressure Sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

accelerometers
Accelerometers

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

rotation speed sensors
Rotation Speed Sensors
  • There are many known rotation speed sensing principles
  • Magnetic sensors (Hall-effect and magnetoresistor based sensors)
  • Inductive sensors
  • Passive and active electromagnetic rpm-sensors are from the frequency-time domain

, where Z is the number of modulation rotor’s (encoder’s) gradations (teeth)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

taos light and color sensors
TAOS Light and Color Sensors

For TSL 230RD: fO = fD + (Re) (Ee),

where fO is the output frequency; fD is the output frequency for dark condition (Ee = 0); Re is the device responsivity for a given wavelength of light given in kHz/(mW/cm2); Ee is the incident irradiance in mW/cm2

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

humidity sensors
Humidity Sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

chemical gas and biosensors
Chemical, Gas and Biosensors
  • Sensors arrays (electronic noses and tongues)
  • Square wave with a frequency inversely proportional to the sensor resistance
  • Sensors Array based on chemisorbing polymer films
  • Acoustic gas sensor based on a gas-filled cell
  • Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors
  • SAW and bulk acoustic wave sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

magnetic sensors
Magnetic Sensors
  • HAL810, HAL819 – Hall sensors with duty-cycle outputform Micronas;
  • AKL Sensors Series from Rhopoint Component Ltd.,
  • High resolution CMOS magnetic field to frequency converter with frequency difference on its output [1]

[1]. Shr-Lung Chen, Chien-Hung Kuo, and Shen-Iuan Liu, CMOS Magnetic Field to Frequency Converter, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol.3, No.2, April 2003, pp.241-245

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

other sensors
Other Sensors
  • Tilt and inclination sensors with PWM outputs
  • Torque transducers with frequency output
  • Level sensors with frequency output
  • Conductivity sensor SBE4 with frequency output
  • Flow sensors with frequency output

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

multiparameters sensors
Multiparameters Sensors
  • Color sensor (TU Delft, The Netherlands): frequency is proportional to optical intensity (luminance) and duty-cycle is proportional to colour (chrominance)
  • Pressure and temperature sensors
  • Humidity and temperature sensors (transmitters) from E+E Elektronik, Bitron, etc.

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

design task definition
Design Task Definition
  • There are many quasi-digital sensors for any physical and chemical quantities
  • The frequency range of such sensors is very wide (some parts of Hz to some MHz), relative error up to 0.01% and better (0.003 %)
  • How to use them by optimal way and efficiently in a frame of intelligent sensor systems ?

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

conventional methods
Conventional Methods
  • Standard counting method (measurement of average frequency for a fixed reference gate time, for example, 1 s)
  • Indirect counting method (measurement of instantaneous frequency 1/Tx)
  • Combined Method
  • Interpolation method (with digital interpolation)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

disadvantages of classical methods
Disadvantages of Classical Methods
  • High quantization error in low or high frequency range
  • Quantization error dependents on frequency
  • Redundant conversion time for the standard counting method

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

advanced methods
Advanced Methods
  • Ratiometric Counting Method
  • Reciprocal Counting Method
  • M/T Counting Method
  • Constant Elapsed Time (CET) Method
  • Single- and Double Buffered Methods
  • DMA Transfer Method
  • Method of Dependent Count (MDC)
  • Method withNon-redundant Reference Frequency

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

benefit and demerits
Benefit and Demerits

Advantage:

  • Redundant conversion time due to prescribed conversion time
  • Measurement frequency fx < f0
  • Two references (frequency and gate time)

Constant quantization error in all specified conversion range of frequencies

Disadvantages:

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

method of dependent count mdc
Method of Dependent Count (MDC)
  • Method was proposed in 1980 (modifications: 1993, 2004 and 2006)
  • Most advanced method: constant programmable quantization error in all frequency range; non-redundant conversion time; the possibility to convertfrequency fxhigher, than the reference frequency f0 (fx >> f0 ); self-adaptation capabilities
  • The method has been developed for conversion of absolute, relative frequencies and periods
  • Suitable for single channel as well as for multichannel synchronous frequency conversions

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

comparison of methods
Comparison of Methods

MDC, M/T

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

method selection
Method Selection
  • The accuracy of conversion is one of the most important quality factor for smart sensor systems.Due to advanced methods it is possible to reach a constant quantization error
  • Self-adapting method of dependent count and method with non-redundant reference frequency are very suitable for the usage in frequency-to-digital converters of smart sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

integrated fdcs
Integrated FDCs
  • USP-30 one-chip specialized microprocessor (1980)
  • IC of ALU for time interval measurements (1989)
  • K512PS11 - frequency-to-digital converter (1990)
  • USIC - universal sensor interface chip (1996)
  • Single-chip (FPGA) interpolating time counter
  • ASIC of single channel frequency-to-digital converter (1999)
  • Frequency-to-digital converter from AutoTEC
  • Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) from Acam-messelectronic GmbH
  • SSP1492 - Sensor Signal Processorfrom Sensor Platforms, Inc. (USA, 2006)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ics disadvantages
ICs Disadvantages
  • All ICs except TDCs are based on conventional methods of measurement, hence, quantization error is dependent on measurand frequency fx , many ofICs have redundant conversion time
  • They cannot be used with all existing modern frequency-time domain sensors due to low accuracy or/and narrow frequency ranges
  • They do not cover all frequency–time informative parameters of electric signals.

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

universal frequency to digital converter ufdc 1
Universal Frequency-to-Digital Converter (UFDC-1)
  • Low cost digital IC with programmable accuracy
  • 2 channels, 16 measuring modes for different frequency-time parameters and one generating mode (fosc/2 = 8 MHz)
  • Based on four patented novel conversion methods
  • Should be very competitive to ADC and has wide applications

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

features
Features
  • Frequency range from 0.05 Hz up to 7 MHz without prescaling and 112 MHz with prescaling
  • Programmable accuracy (relative error) for frequency (period) conversion from 1 up to 0.001 %
  • Relative quantization error is constant in all specified frequency range
  • Non-redundant conversion time
  • Quartz-accurate automated calibration
  • RS-232/485, SPI and I2C interfaces

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ufdc 1 block diagram
UFDC-1 Block Diagram

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

measuring modes
Measuring Modes
  • Frequency, fx1 0.05 Hz – 7.5 MHz directly and up to 120 MHz with prescalling
  • Period, Tx1 150 ns – 20 s
  • Phase shift, x 0 - 3600 at fx 500 kHz
  • Time interval between start- and stop-pulse, x 2 s – 250s
  • Duty-cycle, D.C. 0 – 1 at fx 500 kHz
  • Duty-off factor, Q 10-8 – 8.106 at fx 500 kHz
  • Frequency and period difference and ratio
  • Rotation speed (rpm) and rotation acceleration
  • Pulse width and space interval 2 s – 250s
  • Pulse number (events) counting, Nx 0 – 4.109

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

evaluation board circuit diagram
Evaluation Board Circuit Diagram

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ufdc 1 evaluation board
UFDC-1 Evaluation Board

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ufdc 1 and analog signal domain
UFDC-1 and Analog Signal Domain

Digital Output

Sensors

Voltage (V)

or

Current (I)

RS-232/485

SPI

I2C

fx, Hz

VFC

Any Voltage-to-Frequency Converter (VFC) can be used to convert an analog signal to quasi-digital (frequency) signal

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

where to use the ufdc 1
Where to use the UFDC-1 ?

Smart Sensors; Quasi-digital and Digital sensors; Multiparametric Sensors

ABS Systems

Frequency Counters

Virtual Instruments

Tachometers and Tachometric Systems

DAQ boards for Frequency-time Parameters

Multimeters for Frequency-time Parameters

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

color to digital converter
Color-to-Digital Converter

Design notes:100 % scaling mode for TCS230 (S0, S1 =1) and clear photodiode type (no filter, S2=1, S3=0). Power-supply lines must be decoupled by a 0.01-mF to 0.1-mF capacitor with short leads mounted close to the device package.

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

light to digital converters
Light-to-Digital Converters

(a)

(b)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

commands example rs 232 interface
Commands Example(RS-232 interface)

>M0 ; Frequency measurement initialization

>A0 ; 1 % conversion error set up

>S ; Start a measurement

>R ; Read a result

1000.674946004319 ; Measurement result indication

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

multiparameters sensor interfacing
Multiparameters Sensor Interfacing

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

multiparameters sensor interfacing cont
Multiparameters Sensor Interfacing (cont.)

>M4 ; Duty-cycle measurement initialization

>S ; Start a measurement

>R ; Read a result

60.9786 ; Duty-cycle measurement result indication

>ME ; Frequency measurement initialization on the 2nd input FX2

>AX ; Appropriate ‘X’ conversion error set up

>S ; Start a measurement

>R ; Read a result

100.578698673 ; Frequency measurement result indication

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

i 2 c interface to taos opto sensors
I2C Interface to TAOS Opto Sensors

<06><00> ; Frequency measurement initialization

<02><00> ; 1 % conversion error set up

<09> ; Start a measurement

<07>; Get measurement result in BCD format

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

spi interface to taos opto sensors
SPI Interface to TAOS Opto Sensors

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

temperature sensor system
Temperature Sensor System

>MB; Pulse interval T1 measurement

>S; Start a measurement

>R; Read a result for T1

>MC; Space interval T2 measurement

>S; Start a measurement

>R; Read a result for T2

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

maxim temperature sensors interfacing
MAXIM Temperature Sensors Interfacing

(b)

(a)

MAX6576 period output sensor interfacing (a) and MAX6577 frequency output sensor interfacing (b)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

accelerometers based systems

Інклінометер

Accelerometers Based Systems

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

rotation speed measurement system
Rotation Speed Measurement System

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

commands example rs 232 interface50
Commands Example(RS-232 interface)

>MA ;Rotation speed measurement initialization

>Z0C ; Set up Z=12(10)=C(16)

>A9 ;Choose the conversion error 0.001 %

>S ;Start a measurement

>R ;Read a result of measurement in rpm

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

digital humidity sensors and data loggers

UFDC-1

PC

8 (GND)

7 (+5V)

EE05

6

RS-232

RH out

4

(a)

(b)

Digital Humidity Sensors and Data Loggers

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

temperature and humidity multisensors system
Temperature and Humidity Multisensors System

Multisensors systems with the HTF3130 sensor for humidity measurement (the second channel) and temperature sensor MAX6576 temperature measurement (the first channel)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

pressure sensors interfacing
Pressure Sensors Interfacing

Connection diagram for 8000 Series of frequency output depth sensors from Paroscientific, Inc.

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

commands example rs 232
Commands Example (RS-232)

>M0 ; Frequency measurement initialization in the first channel

>A0 ; Choose the conversion error 0.1 %

>S ; Start a measurement

>R ; Read a result proportional to temperature

>ME ; Frequency measurement initialization in the second channel

>A0 ; Choose the conversion error 0.001 %

>S ; Start a measurement

>R; Read a result proportional to pressure

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

digital magnetic sensors and systems

HAL819 to UFDC-1 interfacing circuit

Digital Magnetic Sensors and Systems

>M4; Duty-cycle measurement initialization (mode 4)

>S; Start measurement

>R; Read result

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ufdc 2 and usti
UFDC-2 and USTI
  • UFDC-2 it is the UFDC-1 + frequency deviation (absolute and relative) measuring mode.
  • Improved metrological performances: extended frequency range up to 9 MHz (144 MHz with prescaling), programmable relative error up to 0.0005 %, etc.
  • Improved calibration procedures
  • USTI – it is the UFDC-2 + resistance, capacitance and resistive bridge measuring modes

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

adaptive algorithms
Adaptive Algorithms
  • An adaptation in smart sensors systems can be used for increasing of measurement accuracy,decreasing of measuring time, powerconsumption reduction, etc.
  • Adaptive measuring algorithms:

where L is the algorithm of measurement; Ts , s and Psare operations for speed and accuracy increasing; and power consumption decreasing respectively; j (t) is the input action

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

parametric adaptation
Parametric Adaptation

For the modified MDC:

at

For the method with non-redundant reference frequency:

at

where Fx(*) is the characteristic of input action or measuring conditions

If is the subset of certain area I of possible values of characteristic Fx (*)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

flowchart of adaptive algorithm
Flowchart of Adaptive Algorithm

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

conversion times vs relative error
Conversion Times vs. Relative Error

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

adaptive rotation speed measurements
Adaptive Rotation Speed Measurements

>M0A; Rotation speed measurement initialization in the 1st channel

>Z30; Set up the modulation rotor teeth number Z=48(10)=30(16)

>A09; Choose the relative error of frequency measurement 0.0005 %

>S; Start a measurement

>R; Read a result of measurement in rpm

; Here microcontroller or computer should check the condition for an algorithm changing and prepare the USTI to measure with highest speed (maximum relative error) if a critical rotation speed has been achieved:

>A00; Choose the relative error of measurement 1 %

>S; Start a measurement

>R; Read a result of measurement in rpm

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

self adaptive smart sensor system based on msp430 k
Self-adaptive Smart Sensor System Based on MSP430K

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

other applications
Other Applications
  • Pressure intelligent sensor system for gas pipeline
  • Temperature, humidity, etc. self-adaptive smart sensors systems
  • Robotics

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

ieee 1451 standard
IEEE 1451 Standard
  • The standard defines the concept of plug-and-play sensors with analog outputs, maintaining compatibility with the large existing base of analog instrumentation and interfaces.
  • IEEE 1451 family of standardsbecome more and more popular
  • Since 2004 more than 3200 different models of sensors were manufactured according to IEEE 1451.4

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

standard extension

Digital,

Point

-

to

-

Point

TII

TEDS

Smart

Transducer

Network

-

Capable

IEEE

1451.2

Interface

Module

Interface

Digital

Application

(STIM)

FDC

Txdcr

Processor

Distributed

(NCAP)

Multidrop

Bus

Bus

TEDS

Transducer

Bus

IEEE

1451.3

Interface

Module

Interface

Txdcr

(TBIM)

FDC

Txdcr

Network

Wireless

TEDS

IEEE

IEEE

Wireless

IEEE

1451.5

1451.0

Wireless

Interface

1451.1

Transducer

Common

Txdcr

FDC

Common

Functiona

-

Object

lity

&

Model

Frequency+

TEDS

Digital

TEDS

Mixed

-

Mode

IEEE

1451.4

Transducer

Txdcr

Any

Network

TII

-

Transducer

Independent

Interface

Txdcr

-

Transducer

Standard Extension

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

physical representation of ieee 1451 2
Physical Representation of IEEE 1451.2

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

teds example
TEDS Example

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

mix mode interface for frequency sensors
Mix-Mode Interface for Frequency Sensors

Class II multiwire interface

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

technologies

Digital

Output

Sensing

Element 1

UFDC or USTI

(Core)

Sensing

Element 2

Sensing

Element 3

VFC

Sensors and sensing elements

TEDS

Technologies
  • IC, ASIC
  • Hybrid
  • MEMS
  • System in Package
  • System-on-Chip (SoC)

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

mems oscillators
MEMS Oscillators
  • Next generation oscillator technology
  • Smaller, higher-precision references
  • Immune to temperature and vibration
  • Long-term stability of 0.05 ppm
  • 20 ppm frequency variations
  • Can go in plastic packages
  • Much more rugged than quartz crystal oscillators

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

cmos system on chip

MEMS Oscillator

fo

Universal Frequency-to-Digital Converter

Bus

Output

fx1

fx2

MEMS Sensor 2

MEMS Sensor 1

SoC

CMOS System-on-Chip
  • Sensors system does not require any external time or frequency references
  • UFDC and USTI lets solve problems with the interface circuit design and additional circuitry for MEMS oscillators in order to increase its short frequency stability

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Task of creation of different smart digital sensors and intelligent sensors systems for various physical and chemical, electric and non electric quantities is one of the most perspective and urgent task
  • New smart sensors systems design methodology lets essentially reduce production costs and time-to-market
  • Self-adaptive smart sensors and sensor systems based on novel modified method of the dependent count for frequency (period)-to-digital conversion of sensor’s outputs can be easy realized on UFDC and USTI integrated circuits well-suited for such kind of applications

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com

questions
Questions ?

International Frequency Sensor Association ● www.sensorsportal.com