the height of greek civilization l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Height of Greek Civilization PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Height of Greek Civilization

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 110

The Height of Greek Civilization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 692 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Height of Greek Civilization. Chapter 5 World History. Chapter Themes. Innovation: The ancient Greeks developed a culture that becomes one of the foundations of Western civilization The Parthenon. Chapter Themes.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Height of Greek Civilization' - emily


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the height of greek civilization

The Height of Greek Civilization

Chapter 5

World History

John 3:16

chapter themes
Chapter Themes
  • Innovation: The ancient Greeks developed a culture that becomes one of the foundations of Western civilization
  • The Parthenon

John 3:16

chapter themes3
Chapter Themes
  • Innovation: Ancient Greek thinkers believe in reason and the importance of the individual
  • Socrates

John 3:16

chapter themes4
Chapter Themes
  • Cultural Diffusion: Alexander’s empire brings about a mix of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures
  • Alexander the Great

John 3:16

quest for beauty and meaning
This section discusses the Mid-400s B.C., Greek’s Golden Age. Artists excelled in architecture, sculpture, and painting. These beautiful yet simplistic works are termed “classical”. Writers and thinkers also made enduring achievements in literature and drama. Quest for beauty and meaning

John 3:16

terms to define
Terms to Define
  • Classical
  • Sanctuary
  • Perspective
  • Amphora
  • Tragedy
  • Comedy

John 3:16

people to meet
People to Meet
  • Myron
  • Phidias
  • Praxiteles
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles
  • Euripides
  • Aristophanes
  • m

John 3:16

places to locate
Places to Locate
  • Olympia

John 3:16

building for the gods
Building for the Gods
  • The Greeks were “lovers of the beautiful”
  • City-states tried to turn acropolis into architectural treasure

John 3:16

building for the gods10
Building for the Gods
  • The Parthenon—the temple to the goddess Athena--built on the summit of the Acropolis in Athens—best exemplifies classical Greek architecture

John 3:16

building for the gods11
Building for the Gods
  • Parthenon of Athens built under the rule of Pericles
  • Started 447 B.C. and finished 432 B.C.
  • Classical is characterized by beautiful simplicity and graceful balance.
  • Iron in its marble makes it gleam in the sun

John 3:16

building for the gods12
Building for the Gods
  • The Parthenon’s graceful proportions perfectly balance width, length, and height, exemplifying the Greek ideal of the “golden mean”
  • This was part of the “Golden Age” of Greece

John 3:16

building for the gods13
Building for the Gods
  • Greeks worshipped in their homes or out doors. So their temples were built for the homes of their gods.

John 3:16

building for the gods14
Building for the Gods
  • Parthenon represented the “Golden Mean”
    • “nothing to excess”
    • “…midpoint between two extremes”

John 3:16

building for the gods15
Building for the Gods
  • Greeks understood perspective
    • Columns thicker in middle…appear straight from all angles
    • Steps lower in center--appears straight
  • Creating perception of perfection

John 3:16

classical greek art
Classical Greek Art
  • Copied by the Romans
  • Set lasting standards
  • Other achievements in literature, art, drama, etc., many considered classics today.
  • Many Europe’s traditions/cultural standards began with “Golden Age”

John 3:16

greek arts
Greek Arts
  • Greeks emphasized the individual—thus excelled at portraying the human form
  • In both painting and sculpture, the Greeks excelled at portraying the human form.
  • Poseidon

John 3:16

greek art
Greek Art
  • They did paint murals but non survived. Their works are captured on vases
  • Large vases were called amphora and normally uses for wine or oils
  • Painting on vases were everyday scenes

John 3:16

greek arts19
Greek Arts
  • Greek sculpture, like Greek architecture, reached its height in Athens during the time of Pericles
  • The great sculpture Phidias was in charge of the Parthenon’s sculptures and carved the towering statue of Athena that was placed inside.

John 3:16

greek arts20
Greek Arts
  • Praxiteles work reflected the changes incurred from the Peloponnesian War
    • Sculptures were life-size, graceful, not powerful
    • Ordinary people and deities and heroes.

John 3:16

impact of war on art
Impact of War on Art
  • Praxiteles carved ordinary people into life-sized statues
  • Loss of self confidence
  • Emphasis of grace over power
  • Before the Peloponnesian War, artists carved only deities and heroes. After, they carved ordinary people

John 3:16

drama and theater
Drama and Theater
  • The Greeks were the first people to write and perform plays, presented twice a year to honor Dionysus.
  • The earliest Greek plays were tragedies, in which the lead character struggles against fate only to be doomed to an unhappy ending

John 3:16

aeschylus
Aeschylus
  • First of great writers of tragedies
  • Aeschylus’s (EHS*kuh*luhs) “Oresteia” trilogy show how the consequences of one’s deeds are carried down generation to generation
  • Its moral is that the law of the community, not personal revenge, should decide punishment

John 3:16

sophocles
Sophocles
  • Sophocles, the next generation, accepted human suffering as unavoidable but stressed human courage and compassion
  • His “Oedipus Rex” depicts the plight of Oedipus, a king doomed to kill his father and marry his mother.

John 3:16

sophocles25
Sophocles
  • Despite Oedipus’ efforts to avoid his fate, the deities’ decree comes true
  • When he discovers what he has done, he blinds himself and goes into exile

John 3:16

euripides
Euripides
  • Euripides, the last great Greek tragedian, focused on the human characteristics that bring disaster to them Euripides hated war and many of his plays show the tragedy that war brings

John 3:16

a comedy tonight
A Comedy Tonight
  • Eventually the Greeks also wrote comedies, plays with humorous themes and happy ending
  • Aristophanes (ar*uh*STAH*fuh*NEEZ), the most famous writer of comedies, created imaginative social satire

John 3:16

a comedy tonight28
A Comedy Tonight
  • Aristophanes’ works included witty comments about leading figures and issues of the day
  • Theater at Delphi

John 3:16

the olympic games
The Olympic Games
  • Greeks believed healthy bodies made best use of nature’s gifts
  • Hercules by Phidias

John 3:16

the olympic games30
The Olympic Games
  • Greeks stressed athletics in school curriculum
  • Men spend leisure time in polis gymnasium

John 3:16

the olympics
The Olympics
  • Olympic Games were held in Olympia every 4 years
  • Olympics were religious festival in honor of Zeus
  • Trading and fighting stopped

John 3:16

the olympic games32
The Olympic Games
  • Athletes came from all over Greek-speaking world
  • Women not permitted, even as spectators
  • Women’s games in honor of Hera held in different location

John 3:16

the olympic games33
The Olympic Games
  • Consistent with Greek emphasis on the individual, there were individual rather than team events
  • Foot races at first
  • Later, broad jump, discuss, jumping, boxing, javelin, etc.

John 3:16

the olympic games34
The Olympic Games
  • Winners were crowned with wreaths of olive leaves
  • Parades held in honor of winners
  • Sometimes, taxes were dismissed

John 3:16

the greek mind
Greeks believed the mind could understand everything. Philosophers, or thinkers, produced remarkable ideas. Philosophy means, “the seeking of wisdom”. A foundation was laid for new disciplines like history, political science, biology, and logic—the science of reasoning The Greek mind

John 3:16

terms to define36
Terms to Define
  • Philosopher
  • Logic
  • Hygiene

John 3:16

people to meet37
People to Meet
  • Sophists
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Herodotus
  • Thucydides
  • Thales
  • Pythagoras
  • Hippocrates

John 3:16

the sophists
The Sophists
  • In 400s B.C., education provided by sophists
  • Sophists: “knowers”
  • Traveled polis to polis
  • Claimed they could find answers to all questions

John 3:16

the sophists39
The Sophists
  • Rejected gods/goddesses influenced behavior
  • No absolute moral/legal standards
  • Man is measure of all things
  • Truth different for each person

John 3:16

the sophists40
The Sophists
  • Took money for teaching
  • Interested in teaching argumentation to get ahead
  • Socrates and Plato criticized them

John 3:16

socrates
Socrates
  • Born 479 B.C., Athenian
  • Sculptor by trade
  • Spent time teaching
  • Believed in absolute truth
  • Attracted to process of learning—teaching thinking for oneself

John 3:16

socrates42
Socrates
  • Teaching method became known as “Socratic Method”
    • Ask questions of students and then oppose their answers with logic
    • Forced students to defend their answers

John 3:16

socrates43
Socrates
  • Prominent Athenians accused him of corrupting youth
  • …not worshipping the gods…”
  • Socrates argued the search for intellectual truth was the most important thing

John 3:16

socrates44
Socrates
  • Don’t calculate living or dying, only “…doing right or wrong”
  • Jury of citizens found him guilty and sentenced him to death

John 3:16

socrates45
Socrates
  • Had the right to ask for a lesser sentence, e.g., exile, but chose to follow the law to the letter
  • Drank poisonous hemlock and died quietly among friends

John 3:16

plato
Plato
  • Born Athenian aristocrat
  • After Socrates death
    • At age 30, opened his Academy and taught
    • Existed until A.D. 529
    • Student of Socrates

John 3:16

plato47
Plato
  • From memory, remembered dialogues between Socrates and students
  • Wrote first political science book
    • The Republic
    • Ideal society and government

John 3:16

plato48
Plato
  • Plato disliked Athenian democracy
  • Preferred Spartan government
    • Service to community above self
    • Too much freedom breeds disorder
  • Distrusted lower classes
  • Only best educated and most intelligent should participate in government

John 3:16

plato49
Plato
  • Plato believed in searching for “truth”
    • Rejected the senses: hearing, feeling, seeing, etc.
    • Believed many things thought to be senses were only appearance
  • Real world was ideas or ideal “forms”
    • Could only be understood through logical thought or reasoning

John 3:16

aristotle
Aristotle
  • Studied with Plato at the Academy for 20 years
  • Tutored Alexander the Great
  • Opened Athenian school called Lyceum

John 3:16

aristotle51
Aristotle
  • Wrote more than 200 books
    • Astronomy
    • Poetry
    • Political Science
    • Weather
    • Etc.

John 3:16

aristotle52
Aristotle
  • Italian poet Dante called him, “the master of those who know”
  • Influenced later philosophers with work in logic
    • Developed the syllogism
    • Does the conclusion follow the premises

John 3:16

aristotle and science
Aristotle and Science
  • Great influence on scientific work
    • First person to observe and then classify facts
    • According to differences and similarities
  • Views and methods of inquiry dominated European scientific thinking for decades

John 3:16

aristotle and government
Aristotle and Government
  • Wrote about political science
    • No theories on ideal government
    • Analyzed governments of many city-states
  • Wrote a book, Politics
    • Democracies, oligarchies, and tyrannies were all workable, depending on circumstances
    • Preferred power in middle class
    • Middle class knew both command and obey

John 3:16

writers of history
Writers of History
  • Until 400s, Greeks considered literary legends as history
  • Herodotus, first Greek historian, and later, Thucydides, attempted to separated fact from fiction

John 3:16

herodotus
Herodotus
  • Historians consider him, “the father of history”
  • Chose the Persian Wars as this subject
    • Wrote Historia
    • Meant investigation

John 3:16

herodotus57
Herodotus
  • Traveled throughout the Greek world
  • Asked questions, checked sources
  • Accepted some untrue numbers
  • Sometimes offered supernatural explanations

John 3:16

herodotus58
Herodotus
  • Didn’t limit himself to political or military events
    • Wrote about individuals, social customs, religious beliefs and practices
    • Later historians learned much about culture of the period and civilizations

John 3:16

thucydides
Thucydides
  • Thucydides (thoo*SIH*duh*deez) was second noted Greek historian
    • Wrote about Peloponnesian War
    • First scientific historian
    • Rejected deities as part of historical outcome
    • Visited battle sites, carefully examined documents, and only accepted evidence of actual eye witnesses

John 3:16

thucydides60
Thucydides
  • Offered explanations of why events took place
  • What motivated political leaders
  • Believed future generations could learn from the past

John 3:16

the first scientists
The First Scientists
  • Great science heritage
  • Believed world ruled by natural laws
  • Believed humans could discover the laws
    • By reason
    • Through observation and thought
    • Developed theories

John 3:16

greek mathematicians
Greek Mathematicians
  • First to distinguish math as pure science
  • Constructed systematic methods of reasoning through math—finding truth

John 3:16

greek mathematicians63
Greek Mathematicians
  • Thales, first prominent Greek scientist
    • Studied astronomy in Babylon and mathematics in Egypt
    • Foretold solar eclipses
    • Theory that water was basic substance of all things

John 3:16

greek mathematicians64
Greek Mathematicians
  • Pythagoras tried to explain everything in math terms
    • Wrote the Pythagorean Theorem
    • Taught world was round and revolved around fixed point

John 3:16

greek medicine
Greek Medicine
  • Hippocrates
    • “the father of medicine”
    • Diseases had natural, not supernatural causes
    • The body could heal itself
    • First doctor to view medicine as science, separate from religion or mythology

John 3:16

greek medicine66
Greek Medicine
  • Hippocrates
    • Based much on observation
    • Traveled Greece diagnosing/treating illnesses
    • Urged good recordkeeping and information exchange among doctors
    • Advocated good hygiene, sound diet, and rest
    • Drafted ethical code still recited today, The Hippocratic Oath

John 3:16

alexander s empire
The Persians under Darius I and Xerxes tried to conquer Greece and failed. The Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, would not.Alexander’s Empire

John 3:16

terms to define68
Terms to Define
  • Domain

John 3:16

people to meet69
People to Meet
  • Philip II
  • Demosthenes
  • Alexander the Great
  • Zeno
  • Menander
  • Eratosthenes
  • Euclid
  • Archimedes

John 3:16

rise of macedonia
Rise of Macedonia
  • Macedonians, like the Spartans, were descended from the Dorians
  • Greeks looked down on them as backward mountaineers
  • Phillip II

John 3:16

rise of macedonia71
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip II became king 359 B.C.
  • As youth, Greek hostage in Thebes 3 years
  • Admired Greek culture and military organization

John 3:16

rise of macedonia72
Rise of Macedonia
  • As king, Philip had three goals
    • Create strong army
    • Unify Greek city-states under Macedonia
    • Destroy Persian empire

John 3:16

rise of macedonia73
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip reorganized his army to phalanx system
    • 16 rows deep
  • Philip pursued goals for 23 years
    • Polis by polis
    • Conquering, bribing, marrying

John 3:16

rise of macedonia74
Rise of Macedonia
  • Greek city-states weakened by Peloponnesian War
    • Would not cooperate in resistance
    • Great Athenian orator, Demosthenes, appealed to Greeks to fight for their liberty

John 3:16

rise of macedonia75
Rise of Macedonia
  • Philip conquered all of Greece except Sparta
  • Before leading Greeks and Macedonians to war against Persia, he was murdered
    • Persian agent, or
    • Assassin hired by wife

John 3:16

rise of macedonia76
Rise of Macedonia
  • With the death of Philip II, Olympias’s son Alexander became king
  • Soon to become known as Alexander the Great

John 3:16

alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • Only 20 as ruler of Macedonia and Greece
  • Commander in Macedonian army at 16
    • Respected for courage and military skill
  • Well educated—tutored by Aristotle

John 3:16

early conquests
Early Conquests
  • In 334 B.C., led 30,000 soldiers and 5,000 cavalry into Asia
    • Opened his campaign
    • “West against East”
    • First major encounter at Granicus River

John 3:16

early conquests79
Early Conquests
  • At Granicus River, Alexander won
    • Sent 300 suits of Persian armor to Athens as tribute to Athena
  • Freed Ionian city-states from Persians

John 3:16

early conquests80
Early Conquests
  • Second major battle against Persians at Issus, Syria
    • Alexander’s superb tactics won
    • King Darius III flees
  • Does not pursue Darius

John 3:16

early conquests81
Early Conquests
  • Captures Phoenician seaports
    • Cuts off Persian supplies
    • Persian fleet surrenders

John 3:16

early conquests82
Early Conquests
  • Invades Egypt
    • People tired of Persians
    • Declare Alexander a pharaoh
    • Establishes city of Alexandria

John 3:16

final campaigns
Final Campaigns
  • In 331 B.C., Alexander invaded Mesopotamia
    • Smashed Darius’ main army at Gaugamela near Tigris River
    • Went on to capture numerous cities in Persian empire

John 3:16

final campaigns84
Final Campaigns
  • Alexander captures
    • Babylon
    • Persepolis
    • Susa
  • Darius killed by one of his generals
  • Alexander becomes ruler of Persian Empire

John 3:16

imperial goals
Imperial Goals
  • Alexander’s original goal to punish Persia for invasion of Greece 150 years earlier
  • Alexander’s view changed with the conquering of more land

John 3:16

imperial goals86
Imperial Goals
  • Alexander’s new vision
    • Create an empire that would unite Europe and Asia
    • Combine the best of Greek and Persian cultures
    • The culture: Hellenistic

John 3:16

imperial goals87
Imperial Goals
  • Alexander tried to promote goals through example
    • Wore Persian dress
    • Imitated Persian courts
    • Married daughter of Darius III
    • Encouraged 10,000 soldiers to marry Persian women

John 3:16

imperial goals88
Imperial Goals
  • Alexander’s examples (con’t)
    • Enrolled 30,000 Persians in army
    • Founded 70 cities to spread Greek culture and language throughout empire

John 3:16

divided domain
Divided Domain
  • After a short illness, Alexander died in Babylon, his chosen capital
  • Weakened from wounds, fever, and probably excessive alcohol, he died at the age of 32

John 3:16

divided domain90
Divided Domain
  • After Alexander’s death, his empire is divided into three parts
  • Three of his generals each take a domain (territory)
    • Ptolemy
    • Seleucus
    • Antigonus

John 3:16

divided domain91
Divided Domain
  • Ptolemy:
    • Egypt
    • Libya
    • Syria (part of)
  • Most famous Ptolemaic ruler was Cleopatra VII; lost her kingdom to the Romans in 31 B.C.

John 3:16

divided domain92
Divided Domain
  • Seleucus
    • Syria (remainder)
    • Mesopotamia
    • Iran
    • Afganistan
  • Forced to give up eastern territory and withdraw to Syria

John 3:16

divided domain93
Divided Domain
  • Many Jews in the territory ordered to worship Greek deities
  • Judah Maccabees led reoccupation of Jerusalem
  • Temple rededicated
  • Commemorated by Hanukkah

John 3:16

divided domain94
Divided Domain
  • Kingdom of Judah was independent until Romans came
  • Seleucids ruled Syria until Romans came

John 3:16

divided domain95
Divided Domain
  • Antigonus’s domain was Macedonia and Greece
  • City-states declared independence; began fighting one another
  • In 100s B.C., Romans conquered Macedonia and Greece

John 3:16

hellenistic culture
Hellenistic Culture
  • Political unity of Alexander’s empire left with his death
  • Greek language and culture would continue
  • Hellenistic culture flourished

John 3:16

city life
City Life
  • Hellenistic culture concentrated in cities
  • Largest and wealthiest was Alexandria
  • Straight streets
  • White stucco palaces and temples

John 3:16

city life98
City Life
  • Double harbor could hold 1200 ships
  • Lighthouse visible for 35 miles
  • Alexandria also a major intellectual center

John 3:16

city life99
City Life
  • Alexandria…
    • Library: 1 mil volumes
    • Scientific research
    • Jewish scholars translated Hebrew Bible into Greek
      • Still used in Eastern Orthodox Church
      • Used by Apostle Paul

John 3:16

city life100
City Life
  • Greeks formed upper class of Alexandria and other cities through Hellenistic empire
  • Professional Greek soldiers moved to where ever they could find work

John 3:16

city life101
City Life
  • Social Status of Greek women improved
  • Women could move around freely
  • Learned to read/write
  • Entered occupations like real estate, banking and government

John 3:16

hellenistic philosophers
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Focused on how to achieve peace of mind
  • Three systems of thought
    • Cynicism
    • Epicureanism
    • Stoicism

John 3:16

hellenistic philosophers103
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Diogenes was best known cynic
    • Criticized materialism
    • People should give up luxuries, live with nature

John 3:16

hellenistic philosophers104
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Epicurus started epicureanism
    • Avoid joy and pain
    • Live simply
    • Live quietly
    • Have few close friends

John 3:16

hellenistic philosophers105
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Zeno founded Stoicism
    • What happened to people governed by natural laws
    • Gain happiness by ignoring emotions
    • Follow reason
    • Accept difficult circumstances and do duty

John 3:16

hellenistic art and literature
Hellenistic Art and Literature
  • Hellenistic artists departed from Hellenic styles
    • No carvings of idealistic figures
    • People shown in grip of powerful emotions
    • Carved portrait heads—art was now business

John 3:16

hellenistic art and literature107
Hellenistic Art and Literature
  • Playwrights wrote comedies rather than tragedies
  • Menander most renowned playwright

John 3:16

science medicine and mathematics
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Hellenistic scientists produced experiments and new theories
  • Aristarchus (AR*uh*STAHR*kuhs)
    • Sun is larger than earth
    • Stars are at immense distances

John 3:16

science medicine and mathematics109
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Eratosthenes (EHR*uh*TAHS*thuh*NEEZ)
    • Estimated earth’s circumference to within 1% of correct figure
  • Doctors dissected corpses to learn more about human anatomy

John 3:16

science medicine and mathematics110
Science, Medicine, and Mathematics
  • Euclid wrote The Elements of Geometry
  • Archimedes invented the compound pulley
    • Also, the cylinder screw
    • And, discovered the principle of buoyancy and the lever

John 3:16