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Nationalism Ascendant. Julia, John, Nick, Zach, Andreas, Ian October 2007. America in the early 19 th century….

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nationalism ascendant

Nationalism Ascendant

Julia, John, Nick, Zach, Andreas, Ian

October 2007

america in the early 19 th century
America in the early 19th century…
  • Found that its proclamation of neutrality was not going to be easily upheld against the ambitions of its neighbors across the Atlantic, but did so anyways through stubborn perseverance and a little luck, helping it to become a more powerful, self-sufficient nation
    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Embargo Act (1807)
    • U.S. Tariff Policies
  • War of 1812 was mainly motivated by nationalism in that the U.S. and its citizens became infuriated with Britain
dispute over mississippi
Dispute over Mississippi
  • The Treaty of Paris (1783) granted the United Sates land east of Mississippi
    • New Orleans, a major shipping port, was not under American Control
  • The Mississippi River useful to many backcountry farmers in the lands of Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee
    • Spanish built forts along disputed areas of the river prohibiting farmers to transport goods
      • Forced farmers to send goods overland
  • 1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney Treaty)
    • Allowed frontiersmen to send goods down Mississippi and store them in New Orleans (right of deposit)
  • Helped promote Federalist support outside New England
french and the louisiana purchase
French and the Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon came to power in 1798 and wanted to reclaim American territory that was lost
    • Treaty of Ildefonso: Spanish gave back Louisiana to French
  • In the sugar island of Santo

Dominigo (Haiti) a revolution

was sparked by Toussaint

L’Ouverture

    • French sent troops led by

Charles Leclerc died of Yellow Fever

    • No point in having land in

America since there was no

colony to send products and food to

(Gros, Antoine-Jean, “Napoleon Portrait”)

french and the louisiana purchase cont
French and the Louisiana Purchase cont.
  • Napoleon after losing many men in Hispaniola decided that his military adventures in Europe required more attention
  • French give up land from Mississippi to Rocky Mts. for $15 million

(Territorial Growth 1810)

thomas jefferson and negotiations with france
Thomas Jefferson and Negotiations with France

Thomas Jefferson (Presided 1800-08) heard reports of Spain ceding the Louisiana territory to France around 1802, sometime after it occurred

Instructed Robert Livingston and James Monroe to go to France and purchase New Orleans and Florida for $10 million

France offered entire Louisiana territory instead (827,000 square miles) for $15 million; Monroe and Livingston almost immediately accepted.

Constitutionality of the purchase treaty debated until ratified in the Senate in October 1803

debate over the louisiana territory
Debate Over The Louisiana Territory

New Orleans’ Significance

Possession of the port benefited Western states and the American economy in general

Frontiersmen and Federalists all but ready to declare war for it

(Gulf of Mexico)

debate over the louisiana territory cont
Debate Over The Louisiana Territory cont.
  • Constitutionality
    • Jefferson’s ability to define boundaries and make negotiations with France without the consent of Congress was questioned
    • Federalists called the Louisiana Purchase unconstitutional; favored Britain, and did not want to enter into a treaty with Napoleon
    • Most Republicans supported Jefferson despite his loose adherence to strict construction of the Constitution
adventures of lewis and clark
Adventures of Lewis and Clark
  • President Jefferson wanted to learn about the newly acquired land
    • Sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to head expedition to Pacific Ocean
  • While on their journey with 33 volunteers they met Sacagawea, who joined them as an Indian interpreter
  • Lewis and Clark sent their findings back to Jefferson
    • Information was stored in bottles

to not smear ink

  • The expedition led to an

increase in westward expansion

  • Led to increased native

American contact

(Lewis and Clark Expedition)

long term effects of the louisiana purchase
Long-term Effects of the Louisiana Purchase

Exemplified territorial and nationalist ambitions of many Americans

Set precedent of constant territorial expansion for the 19th century

Doubled size of America and showed a new desire to become a major nation

Debates over American politics began to center on the expansion of America as opposed to how to set its foundation

Commonly accepted as one of the causes of the Civil War due to debate over slavery in the new territory

the british french and americans
The British, French, and Americans
  • In the early 1800s…
    • British and French at war
    • United States was neutral, trading with both sides
    • Both Britain and France tried to block American trade with the other nation
      • No way for U.S. to trade with either nation without engaging in war activity
  • Both Britain and France violating America’s neutrality rights
    • Americans are angry
the embargo act of 1807
The Embargo Act of 1807
  • Passed by Congress and signed by Thomas Jefferson
  • Stopped all trade between America and other countries
    • Forbade exports and imports
  • Implemented initially to punish British (for violating American rights at sea) and French
reasoning behind embargo act
Reasoning behind Embargo Act
  • Alternative to war
  • Wanted to regain neutrality rights
  • Economic strategy
    • Nations in Europe depended on U.S. for raw materials and foodstuffs
    • If America cut off exports, France and Britain would respect American rights
short term effects of embargo act
Short-term Effects of Embargo Act
  • Plan backfired
  • Hurt New England commerce
  • South and West also hurt – could not export crops
  • Smuggling prevalent
  • Europe unaffected, did not change their ways
  • Altered political patterns
    • Revived Federalist Party

(“O-Grab-Me” cartoon)

long term effects of embargo act
Long-term Effects of Embargo Act
  • Nation Building/National Growth
    • Increase in manufacturing
      • Domestic industries erected to replace foreign imports
      • Promoted industrialism
  • Essentially increased domestic manufacturing  U.S. self sufficiency
  • One indirect cause of War of 1812
basic u s tariff policy
Basic U.S. Tariff Policy
  • In the United States, tariffs primarily based on
    • Revenue
      • Largest source of U.S. income until surpassed by income tax in early 1900’s
    • Protection to Home Industries
  • Trade Liberalization
    • Protected certain producers while significantly lowering most duty rates
    • Mostly served American economic & political self interest
  • Average duty of 20% on affected imports
u s tariff early history
U.S. Tariff Early History
  • Tariff Act of 1789
    • Applied to build economic infrastructure
    • Convinced European countries of America’s seriousness and significance
    • Suggested by Hamilton to be used as a tool for Hyper-Industrialization
      • Tactic used for War of 1812
      • Important for U.S. to be self-sufficient for providing certain industrial goods
      • Tariff reduced for American ships carrying these goods
  • Tariff Act of 1816 (Dallas Tariff)
    • Part of Madison and Clay’s American System
    • Utilized after War of 1812 for protection of Industry
effects of u s tariff policies
Effects of U.S.’ Tariff Policies
  • Short-Term Effects
    • Supplied United States with revenue in development and times of war
  • Long-Term Effects
    • Contributed to modern economic theory
    • Enhanced U.S. diplomacy
    • Facilitated growth of American industrial trade
    • Bolstered U.S. economy
the war of 1812

The War of 1812

(“War of 1812”)

events leading to war
Events Leading to War
  • America enjoyed trade revenue and was the #1 neutral carrier since 1793
  • Britain and France were embroiled in a war in Europe
  • Britain would come to dominate the sea and would refuse to let America enter French ports
  • The impressment of American soldiers was still a great issue

(“The Old Man of the Sea”)

the embargo
The Embargo
  • Jefferson decided to stop all exports to Europe
  • American economy suffered greatly due to the embargo
  • Smuggling became a necessity to many
  • The federalist party began to revive
  • Trade reopened by Jefferson in 1808 for all nations except Britain and France
madison and war
Madison and War
  • James Madison became president in 1809
  • Madison got the populaces of the South and West to support the war
  • The North was not very willing however, due to commercial interests
  • Madison commenced an invasion of Canada
  • This invasion failed because of badly disciplined ill equipped troops
britain invades
Britain Invades
  • In 1814 Britain had defeated Napoleon and could commit troops to the American front in earnest
  • The British force burned Washington and besieged Baltimore
  • The British be repulsed, however

(“British Take Washington”)

jackson and new orleans
Jackson and New Orleans
  • The British decided to attack New Orleans
  • Andrew Jackson repulsed this immense 8000 man attack
  • This victory was very important for Americans at the time

(Portrait of Andrew Jackson)

war and nationalism
War and Nationalism
  • War did much for American Nationalist sentiment
  • American victories at Baltimore and New Orleans  America could stand against the armies of Europe
  • National Anthem itself was written during the siege of Baltimore
  • 2nd War for Independence
    • Gave the American people much more confidence in the nation
    • Perhaps just as importantly, it showed that the government was capable
in conclusion
In conclusion…
  • Louisiana Purchase
    • Nation building
    • Nationalistic pride
  • Embargo Act and U.S. Tariff Policies
    • Nation building
  • War of 1812
    • Greater sense of independence
    • Nationalistic pride
works cited
Works Cited
  • “Brief History.” Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial. 29 September 2007. <http://www.umsl.edu/~loupurch/history. html>
  • Collier, Christopher and James Lincoln Collier. The Jeffersonian Republicans: The Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark Books,

1999.

  • Cunningham Jr., Noble E. “Thomas Jefferson.” The Oxford Companion to United States History. Ed. Paul S. Boyer. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.,

2001. 404-05.

  • Faber, Lo. "The Embargo of 1807." Mar. 2006. Skidmore College. 4 Oct. 2007 <http://www.lofaber.com/embargo/>.
  • Fenstermaker, J V., and John E. Filer. "The U.S. Embargo Act of 1807: Its Impact on New England." Economic Inquiry (1990). Gale Group. 2 Oct. 2007.
  • Fleming, Thomas. The Louisiana Purchase. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2003
  • Gros, Antoine-Jean. Napoleon Portrait. 1802. South Carolina State Museum. State of South Carolina. 6 Oct. 2007

<http://www.sc.gov/NewsCenter/StateMuseum/pr06028.htm>.

  • Gulf of Mexico. University of Texas Marine Science Institute. Gulf of Mexico. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://www.utmsi.utexas.edu/outreach/beach_debris/content/02c-

map.html>.

  • "Jefferson's West: Origins of the Lewis and Clark Expeditions." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. 1 Oct. 2007

<http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/origins.html>.

  • "Lewis and Clark." ThinkQuest. 30 Sept. 2007 <http://library.thinkquest.org/4034/lewisandclark.html>.
  • "Lewis and Clark Expedition." World Book. 2007. 1 Oct. 2007 <http://www.worldbook.com/wb/Students?content_spotlight/lewis_and_clark/expedition>.
  • "Louisiana Purchase." 2006. 30 Sept. 2007 <http://gatewayno.com/history/LaPurchase.html>.
  • "Louisiana Purchase." Great Falls Tribune. 1 Oct. 2007 <http://www.greatfallstribune.com/communities/lewisandclark/20030622/louisiana.pdf>.
  • "Louisiana Purchase." Louisiana State Museum. 03 Oct. 2007 <http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab4.htm>.
  • "Louisiana Purchase." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Governent. 30 Sept. 2007 <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/jd/14321.htm>.
  • O-Grab-Me. U.S. Coinage and the War of 1812. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/US-Coinage-and-the-War-of-1812.html>.
  • The Old Man of the Sea. US History. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://staff.harrisonburg.k12.va.us/~cwalton/USHistory/neutralityactcartoons.jpg>.
  • Portrait of Andrew Jackson. Wikipedia. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson>.
  • "Tariff of 1816." Foreign Affairs. 2002. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h973.html>.
  • Taylor, George R. The Great Tariff Debate, 1820-1830. Boston: Heath, 1953.
  • Territorial Growth 1810. University of Texas, Austin. Louisiana Purchase: a Brief History. 6 Oct. 2007

<http://www.jmu.edu/madison/center/main_pages/madison_archives/life/secretary/la_purchase/history.htm>.

  • "The Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty)." Archiving Early America. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sanlorenzo/>.
  • Thomas, Zeiler W. "Tariff Policy." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. 2002. Find Articles.
  • "Treaty of San Lorenzo/Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795." U.S. Department of State. State Department. 30 Sept. 2007 <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/nr/90612.htm>.
  • War of 1812. Genealogy. 6 Oct. 2007 <http://www.tracycrocker.com/p94.htm>.
  • "War of 1812." History Central. 2000. Multieducator Inc. 3 Oct. 2007 <http://www.historycentral.com/1812/Index.html>.
  • Weeks, William Earl. “Louisiana Purchase.” The Oxford Companion to United States History. Ed. Paul S. Boyer. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2001.

463.

  • Wilson, Gaye. “The Louisiana Purchase.” Monticello.org. 29 September 2007. <http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/louisiana.html>