ISLAM and VIOLENCE Rizal Arryadi
Background • Recent terrorist bombings all over the world • Islam is often blamed and accused as a religion of war, teaching violence and hatred. • Some people has used verses in the Noble Quran to support their arguments that Islam is NOT a peace religion • This presentation should explain: • Which verses in the Quran that are often blamed as “encouraging violence” or used by terrorist to make their action legit? • How to interpret those verses correctly? • How does Islam
Islam encourages fighting? • 2:191 -- And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter… • 2:216 -- Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not. • 9:5 "... fight and slay the pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war) ...“ • 2:224, 3:157-158, 3:169, 3:195, 4:101, 4:74-75, 4:89, 4:95, 5:36
Islam justifies revenge? • 5:45 -- "We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers. • 16:26 -- "And if ye punish, then punish as ye were punished (by them). But if ye show patience, that is indeed the best (course) For those who are patient.
How to understand the Quran • 3:7 -- He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning) or muhkamat; they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. • Guidance to understand Quran correctly: • Collect other related verses in Quran • Understand the cause of revelation (Asbaabun Nuzul) • Find hadith related to the verses • Be careful of abrogation (if relevant) • The grammar!
Islam encourages fighting?Islam is full of hatred and violence? • The Qu'ran was revealed in the context of an all-out war, several passages deal with the conduct of armed conflict. If the Muslims were defeated they would all be slaughtered to the last man or woman. • Self-defense is a legitimate excuse for fighting. 4:90 -- If they leave you alone and offer to make peace with you, God does not allow you to harm them. 2:217 -- ..Warfare is an awesome evil…
Does Islam really encourages muslims to revenge? • 13:22 "Those who patiently persevere, seeking the countenance of their Lord; establish regular prayers; spend out of (the gifts) We have bestowed for their sustenance, secretly and openly; and turn off evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (Eternal) Home." • 23:96 "Repel evil with that which is best: We are Well-acquainted with the things they say." • 41:34 "Nor can goodness and evil be equal. Repel (evil) with that is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate!." • 28:54 "Twice will they be given their reward, for that they have persevered, that they avert evil with good, and that they spend (in charity) out of what We have given them." • 42:40 "The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) Loveth not those who do wrong." • 3:134 Allah Almighty loves those who restrain anger: "Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; for Allah loves those who do good.”
But yes, Islam preaches justice 16:90 -- "Allah commands justice, the doing Of good, and liberality to kith And kin, and He forbids All shameful deeds, and injustice And rebellion: He instructs you, That ye may receive admonition. 5:45 -- "We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers. 2:178 -- "O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.
Interestingly, in the Bible.. • Exodus 21:22-25 -- "If men who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman's husband demands and the court allows. But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise. • Leviticus 24:18-21 -- Anyone who takes the life of someone's animal must make restitution-life for life. 19 If anyone injures his neighbor, whatever he has done must be done to him: 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. As he has injured the other, so he is to be injured. 21 Whoever kills an animal must make restitution, but whoever kills a man must be put to death. • Deut. 19:21 -- Show no pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.
Islam teaches hatred? • 60:8 -- "Allah forbids you not, With regard to those who Fight you not for (your) Faith Nor drive you out Of your homes, From dealing kindly and justly With them: For Allah loveth Those who are just.” • 5:8 -- O ye who believe! Stand out firmly For Allah, as witnesses To fair dealing, and let not The hatred of others To you make you swerve To wrong and depart from Justice. Be just: that is Next to Piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted With all that ye do. • 4:112 --"But if anyone earns a fault or a sin and throws it on to one that is innocent, He carries (on himself) (Both) a falsehood and a flagrant sin.” • 2:256 -- Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
More about fighting in Islam • Fighting is legit if the muslims are attacked first. 22:39 -- To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid; 22:40 -- (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah.. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
More about fighting in Islam • Muslims may never initiate hostilities • Aggression is forbidden by God 2:190 -- Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors. • While the fighting continues, Muslims must dedicate themselves wholly to the war in order to bring things back to normal as quickly as possible, but the second the enemy sues for peace, hostilities must cease. 2:192 -- But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. 8:61 -- "But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things). ”
More about fighting in Islam • If you kill one innocent soul (whether it was a Muslim soul or not), then it is like committing a crime against all people. 5:32 -- On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our apostles with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land. • And if a treaty of peace was made, then we must honor that treaty to the end. 4:90 -- "Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If God had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you: Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then God Hath opened no way for you (to war against them).
Similar discussion should be made for some of the Bible’s verses… • "So I will cast her on a bed of suffering, and I will make those who commit adultery with her suffer intensely, unless they repent of her ways. I will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know that I am he who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of you according to your deeds. (From the NIV Bible, Revelation 2:22-23)" • "He replied, 'I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but as for the one who has nothing, even what he has will be taken away. But those enemies of mine who did not want me to be king over them--bring them here and kill them in front of me.' After Jesus had said this, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. (From the NIV Bible, Luke 19:26-28)" • "If anyone comes to me and does not hate his father and mother, his wife and children, his brothers and sisters- yes, even his own life- he cannot be my disciple. (Luke 14:26)" • … Then Samson prayed to the LORD, "O Sovereign LORD , remember me. O God, please strengthen me just once more, and let me with one blow get revenge on the Philistines for my two eyes." Then Samson reached toward the two central pillars on which the temple stood. Bracing himself against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other, Samson said, "Let me die with the Philistines!" Then he pushed with all his might, and down came the temple on the rulers and all the people in it. Thus he killed many more when he died than while he lived. (From the NIV Bible, Judges 16:26-30)"
Similar discussion should be made for some of the Bible’s verses… • Deuteronomy 13:6-9 "If your very own brother, or your son or daughter, or the wife you love, or your closest friend secretly entices you, saying: Let us go and worship other gods (gods that neither you nor your fathers have known, gods of the peoples around you, whether near or far, from one end of the land to the other, or gods of other religions), do not yield to him or listen to him. Show him no pity. Do not spare him or shield him. You must certainly put him to death. Your hand must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people." • Deuteronomy 17:3-5 "And he should go and worship other gods and bow down to them or to the sun or the moon or all the army of the heavens, .....and you must stone such one with stones and such one must die."
Some guidance.. • Some muslims indeed misinterpret the Quran. Do not condone violence without legitimate excuses. • Do not let your hatred makes you treat others unjustly. 5:8 -- "And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is nearest to heedfulness" • Do not spare hatred (towards other faiths) to our children – constantly make them believe that Islam means peace and tolerance. • Treat others as we want to be treated.