chp 18 physical geography of africa l.
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Chp 18: Physical Geography of Africa. Take Five…. Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 415. Landforms of The African Continent. Plateau over most of the continent 1,000 feet above sea level “plateau continent” Water Basins (depressions) 625 miles wide 5,000 feet deep

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take five
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 415
landforms of the african continent
Landforms of The African Continent
  • Plateau over most of the continent
    • 1,000 feet above sea level
    • “plateau continent”
  • Water Basins (depressions)
    • 625 miles wide
    • 5,000 feet deep
      • Ex: Chad, Sudan, Congo, & Djouf Basins
  • Rivers
    • Nile=Longest river in the world
      • 4,000 miles
      • Provides Irrigation waters
      • 95% of water resource for Egypt
valleys mountains lakes oh my
Valleys, Mountains, & Lakes (Oh My…)
  • Rift Valleys—caused by continental separation
    • Lake Tanganyika—longest freshwater lake in the world
    • Lake Victoria—world’s 2nd largest freshwater lake
  • Volcanic mountains
    • Mount Kenya
    • Mount Kilimanjaro--Africa’s Highest Mtn.
  • Escarpment—steep slope with plateau on top
    • The Great Escarpment in Southern Africa
wally points
Wally Points…
  • What is the problem associated with rift valleys in Africa?
africa s natural resources
Africa’s Natural Resources
  • Rich mineral resources
    • Gold (30% of world’s resources); Platinum (80%) Cobalt; Copper; Diamonds; Chromium (used in production of stainless steel)
    • Oil—Libya, Nigeria, Algeria (world’s leading petroleum countries); Angola & Gabon also rich in oil resources
  • Is not rich in economic development
    • Exploited by European imperialist countries
    • Africa slow to develop infrastructure and industries
take five14
Take Five…
  • What do African countries, such as Angola spend the oil money on?
in class assignment pg 419
In class assignment…pg 419
  • Complete the Economic Map Activity on pg 419
in class assignment
In class assignment
  • Read Chp 18 Section 3 and make a list of pros and cons for the building of the Aswan Dam
  • Then, write a paragraph either defending or supporting the Dam
african climate and vegetation
African Climate and Vegetation
  • Deserts
    • Kalahari
    • Namib
    • Sahara=largest desert in the world
      • 3,000 miles
      • Temperatures over 100 during the day and freezing at night
      • Only 2 million Africans live here
  • Aquifers=underground water resources
    • Oasis
  • Tropics of Africa?
    • 90% of continent lies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
take five21
Take Five…
  • From the youtube video—how did the Bushmen survive without a lot of rainfall? Where did they live?
rainfall in africa
Rainfall in Africa
  • Mediterranean climates in Northern and Southern Africa
    • Rainfall N =(Dec & Jan) & S = (June & July)
  • East Africa
    • Periodic droughts
  • Central Africa
    • Rainforest=throughout the year
    • ½ of Africa is the tropical savannah w/ 2 rainy seasons each year
  • Western Africa
    • Adequate rainfall
  • Tropical grasslands cover the majority of African landscapes
    • Serengeti Plain
  • Rainforest in the Central regions of Africa
    • Congo Basin
    • Variety of plant and animal life
    • Canopy
    • Problems with slash/burn techniques
      • ½ of original rainforest destroyed
human environment interaction
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Desertification of the Sahel
    • Causes
      • Overgrazing of livestock
      • Farming and increased soil erosion
      • Wind erosion
      • Drilling for water leads to increased levels of salt which prevents growth
      • Increased population
    • Effects
      • Destroying forests and rainforests
human environment interaction30
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Oil Resources in Nigeria
  • World’s 6th largest oil exporter
  • Nigeria borrowed money against oil profits for internal improvements
  • Oil prices dropped leaving Nigeria in debt to foreign countries
effects of nigerian oil industry
Effects of Nigerian Oil Industry
  • Mismanagement of money, corruption of government officials and decline of oil prices has injured the Nigerian economy
  • 400+ oil spills
  • Bandits sabotaging oil pipelines with consent of the government
  • New leadership-President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999) pledged to fire corrupt government employees and clean up corruption and mismanagement
controlling the nile river
Controlling the Nile River
  • Periods of drought/flooding
  • Flooding provided silt for fertile soils along the banks of the Nile—but also destroyed homes/farms etc
  • Egyptians tried canals and dams to stop the environmental problem
  • Aswan High Dam (1970)
    • Created Lake Nasser—300 mile lake
    • Regulates water flow to farming regions
problems associated with the aswan dam
Problems associated with the Aswan Dam
  • Relocation of Nubian population
  • Relocation of artifacts from the Temple Abu Simbel
  • Destruction of some Egyptian artifacts
  • Decreased fertility without seasonal floods
  • Drains installed to flush out the salt deposits which would have naturally been removed with seasonal flooding
  • Increased in mosquito born diseases (malaria)
  • Evaporation of Lake Nasser
in class assignment39
In Class Assignment…
  • Make a chart of the 5 different regions of Africa include: primary climate of the region, countries in the region, imperialistic nations taking over the region, government of the region and major natural resources of the region.
take five40
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder Questions on pg 431
chp 19 from human beginnings to new nations
Chp 19: From Human Beginnings to New Nations
  • East Africa
  • North Africa
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • Southern Africa
east africa
East Africa
  • “cradle of humanity”
    • Evidence of humanoids from 2 mill years ago
  • Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda
east african trade
East African Trade
  • 100s AD-Trade along the Red Sea & Indian Ocean-Aksum (Ethiopia)
  • Center for Christianity
  • Taking advantage of Monsoon winds
  • 600s AD-Kilwa (Tanzania) emerges as a new trading center with middle east
  • East Africa= cultural crossroads
colonization and imperialism
Colonization and Imperialism
  • Europe interested in rich natural resources
  • Berlin Conference 1884-1885
    • Dividing Africa among European rulers
    • African chiefs were not invited
    • European country must illustrate and maintain control in a region
    • Division without regard to cultural, ethnical or any other African considerations
  • By 1914 only Liberia & Ethiopia was free from European control
    • U.S. in Liberia
    • Ethiopia defeated the Italians in 1896
take five48
Take Five…
  • What happens to African countries, after receiving their independence from European countries? Ex?
problems associated with ending colonization
Problems associated with ending colonization
  • Political instability
  • Economic hardship
  • Ethnical disputes
    • Ex: Rwanda’s Civil War in 1990
east african economies
East African Economies
  • Farming
    • 70% rural
    • Cash crops: coffee, tea, sugar
    • Dependent on world market
  • Tourism
    • Wildlife parks
    • Game reserves
maintaining east african traditions
Maintaining East African Traditions
  • 160 different ethnic groups
    • 2 largest ethnic groups
      • Masai
        • Mainly traditional farmers
      • Kikuyu
        • Farmers as well as urban workers
        • The Mau Mau
how east africans cope with the aids pandemic
How East Africans Cope with the AIDS Pandemic
  • HIV infections
  • Spread of the disease
  • Tradition vs modern


  • Economy
  • Population decline
  • Orphans
north africa
North Africa
  • Countries of North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan & Tunisia
  • Life along the Nile river
    • The “gift of the Nile”
    • Seasonal floods
    • Prosperous agriculture
egyptian pharaohs
Egyptian Pharaohs
  • 3300 BC earliest Egyptian civilizations
  • 3100 BC unification of Egypt
  • Artifacts and gains from Egyptians
    • Pyramids
    • Papyrus
    • Advances in Medicine
take five59
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 439
islam in north africa
Islam in North Africa
  • Fall of the Egyptians to the Romans/ Byzantine Empire
  • Northern African invaded numerous times
  • By 632 AD Muslims spread Islam to Northern Africa
  • 750 AD Muslims controlled most of N. Africa
economies of northern africa
Economies of Northern Africa
  • Agriculture
  • Cash crops
  • Mining
  • Oil
    • Algeria= major export
    • Libya 99% of exports
    • Labor shortages
  • Souks
  • Protest music
    • Rai—Algerian resentment toward French colonization
    • Banning and criticizing rai
women in northern africa
Women in Northern Africa
  • Slow to have reforms for women
  • Polygamy
  • Tunisia
    • 7% parliament
    • 9 % business owners
take five65
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 442
west africa
West Africa
  • Countries of Western Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Cote d’Ivorie, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, and Togo
wally points68
Wally Points…
  • Why would people want to trade gold for salt?
the importance of trade
The importance of trade
  • Location, location, location
    • 200 AD trade between West Africa and the Sahara
    • Gold for salt trade
    • Good ports, open to European traders by 1300’s
stateless societies
Stateless societies
  • Many African states lived as extended family clan groups without official leadership other than the patriarch of the family
  • Blood money
  • Polygamy
  • Polytheistic
take five71
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 443
economies of west africa
Economies of West Africa
  • Exports
    • Gold, diamonds, magnesium & bauxite
  • Dependent upon world market
  • Sierra Leone
    • One of the worst economic countries in West Africa
    • Civil war, instable governments and uneducated population
culture of west africa
Culture of West Africa
  • Asasia-cloth historically created for royalty by the Ashanti people of Ghana
  • Benin bronzes
  • Music
    • Elements of jazz, blues,


    • Kora=cross between the a

lute and a harp

wally points74
Wally Points…
  • What is significant about a father giving his son a stool as a present in Ashanti culture?
central africa
Central Africa
  • Countries of Central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Rep. of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe
european colonization
European colonization
  • Begin in Central Africa
  • Importance of the slave trade
  • Willingness of African leaders to trade
  • Portuguese island of Sao Tome
the gold coast
The “Gold Coast”
  • The slave trade
    • Competing tribes selling prisoners of war to Europeans
  • Portuguese and Dutch
  • The middle passage
  • Tight and loose packing
  • Fear of depopulation
european colonization85
European Colonization
  • Role of King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Rubber workers and beginning of European colonization within the interior
  • Central Africa colonized primarily by Belgium and France
  • Independence in the 1960’s
central african culture
Central African Culture
  • Reflections against colonization and retaining African culture
    • Ex: Congolese—culture above the West
    • Picasso—Fang sculpture
central african education
Central African Education
  • Focusing on education to improve workforce
  • Less than ½ 16-20 year olds in Sub-Saharan Africa attend school
  • Language barriers (700+ languages spoken)
  • Shortage of teachers
  • Hopeful for the future
southern africa
Southern Africa
  • Countries of Southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, Comoros, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, S. Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe
take five90
Take Five…
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 454
mutapa empire
Mutapa Empire
  • Mwene Mutapa
  • Economy based on Gold trade
  • Portuguese colonization
imperialism and colonization
Imperialism and Colonization
  • South Africa
    • The Zulu
    • Dutch colonization (1600’s)
      • Boer’s-Dutch farmers
    • British imperialism
      • Defeat the Zulu
      • Defeat the Boers
  • White minority controlled government, economy, everything
  • 75% black majority controlled nothing
  • Separation of the races
  • Nelson Mandela
    • Jailed from 1964-1982
    • House arrest from 1982-1990
    • Elected President in democratic election of 1994
economies of southern africa
Economies of Southern Africa
  • Sanctions during Apartheid
  • Gaps between the rich and poor—based on race and ethnicity
    • Ex: Botswana
      • Valuable resources (3rd largest diamond producer)
      • Mismanagement of money
      • Lack of agricultural goods
      • Unequal distribution of wealth
affects of aids in southern africa
Affects of AIDS in Southern Africa
  • 25% of all adults infected in Zimbabwe and Botswana
  • Reduction of labor
  • Orphans
chp 20 today s issues
Chp 20 Today’s Issues
  • Africa after colonization
    • Political instability
    • Economic uncertainty
    • Lack of education in some areas
    • Tribal warfare (Civil war)
    • Mismanagement of resources
    • Lacking infrastructure & technology
    • Indebtedness
take five101
Take Five…
  • Do you think that African countries should have their debt forgiven or reduced? Why or why not?
reducing debt and raising standard of living
Reducing debt and raising standard of living
  • Debt forgiveness
  • Regional cooperation to promote trade
    • Ex: Economic Community of West African States
  • Cash crops to diversification
  • Education
  • Cholera
  • Malaria
  • Sleeping Sickness
  • Smallpox
  • AIDS
  • Tuberculosis
  • Ebola virus
why so proliferate
Why so proliferate?
  • Lack of clean drinking water
  • Mosquitoes—no netting
  • Lack of education
  • Lack of medicine
  • Lack of doctors
  • World financial assistance
  • World government agencies
    • Global Fund for Children’s Vaccines
    • Peace Corps
  • Education
  • Public health
  • Private charity
mental maps
Mental maps
  • Look at your own maps then put them away and find the following locations—are you right?
  • Nigeria Nile River
  • Johannesburg Sahara
  • Algeria Kalihari
  • Lake Victoria Congo R
  • Sudan Egypt
  • Somalia Botswana