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Tuesday Lecture – Sugar. Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7, 8. Quiz. Quiz 1. We use the name “potato” for two different food crops, the “Irish Potato” and the “Sweet Potato”. Which of these is a root and which is a stem?

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tuesday lecture sugar
Tuesday Lecture – Sugar

Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7, 8

slide3

Quiz

1. We use the name “potato” for two different food crops, the “Irish Potato” and the “Sweet Potato”. Which of these is a root and which is a stem?

2. What are the two major crops that serve as the source of sugar for people?

3. What plant is the topic of your plant project?

sweets a plant specialty1
Sweets – A Plant Specialty

Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH2O

sweets a plant specialty2
Sweets – A Plant Specialty

Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH2O

- many chemicals included in this category

sweets a plant specialty3
Sweets – A Plant Specialty

Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH2O

- many chemicals included in this category

Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose

2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose

sweets a plant specialty4
Sweets – A Plant Specialty

Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH2O

- many chemicals included in this category

Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose

2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose

Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose

sweets a plant specialty5
Sweets – A Plant Specialty

Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH2O

- many chemicals included in this category

Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose

2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose

Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose

Note – terminology can get confusing here – mixture of chemical and colloquial terms:

Glucose = d-Glucose = Dextrose

Fructose + Glucose - bee sugar (in honey); “inverted” sugar

primary plant sources of sugar
Primary Plant Sources of Sugar

sugar yield

Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum 10% 10 tons/hectare

primary plant sources of sugar1
Primary Plant Sources of Sugar

sugar yield

Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum 10% 10 tons/hectare

Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare

primary plant sources of sugar2
Primary Plant Sources of Sugar

sugar yield

Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum 10% 10 tons/hectare

Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare

Sorghum – Sorghum bicolor

Palm – Phoenix dactylifera

primary plant sources of sugar3
Primary Plant Sources of Sugar

sugar yield

Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum 10% 10 tons/hectare

Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare

Sorghum – Sorghum bicolor

Palm – Phoenix dactylifera

Maple – Acer saccharum 8% (sap)

sugar cane
Sugar Cane

Saccharum officinarum – member of Poaceae (Grass family)

Native to: Polynesia

refining sugar cane
Refining Sugar Cane

1. Cane solids are separated from juice

3. Syrup is boiled and sugar is crystallized

2. Juice is processed to concentrate sugar

sugar cane products
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

sugar cane products1
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
sugar cane products2
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
  • ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar
sugar cane products3
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
  • ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar
  • crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes
sugar cane products4
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
  • ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar
  • crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes
  • crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar
sugar cane products5
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
  • ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar
  • crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes
  • crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar
  • crystals mixed with glucose  “blended” sugar (cheaper)
sugar cane products6
Sugar Cane Products

“Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

  • Sugar Types:
  • standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)
  • ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar
  • crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes
  • crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar
  • crystals mixed with glucose  “blended” sugar (cheaper)
  • Byproducts:
  • Molasses
  • syrups of various types
sugar cane history
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

sugar cane history1
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

sugar cane history2
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

sugar cane history3
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

sugar cane history4
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England)

sugar cane history5
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England)

1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies

sugar cane history6
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England)

1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies

1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves)

sugar cane history7
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England)

1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies

1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves)

1700’s – Sugar taxation  Revolution

sugar cane history8
Sugar Cane – History

Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

11th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold (1319 - $220/lb in England)

1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies

1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves)

1700’s – Sugar taxation  Revolution

1800’s – Sugar beet provides competition in temperate areas

Currently: sugar production subsidized, taxed, politicized

napoleon sweetens the pot sugar beet
Napoleon Sweetens the Pot – Sugar Beet

Beta vulgaris – Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family)

sugar beet processing
Sugar Beet Processing

Lewistown, Idaho Sugar Factory, 1905

Caption to Photo: 10 year old boys can be very useful

north american sweetener
North American Sweetener

Acer saccharum – Sugar Maple

maple syrup
Maple Syrup

Sap is collected in early spring

Sap is boiled in “sugar house”

40 gallons sap  1 gallon syrup

slide39

Glucose, Fructose - C6H12O6

glucose fructose fructose - “chair”

sucrose

slide40

Glucose, Fructose - C6H12O6

Starch - amylose

glucose fructose fructose - “chair”

sucrose

slide41

Glucose, Fructose - C6H12O6

Starch - amylose

glucose fructose fructose - “chair”

sucrose

High Fructose Corn Syrup

1. Starch from Corn

2. Treat with alpha-amylase oligosaccharides

3. Treat with glucoamylase  glucose

4. Treat with glucose isomerase  mixture of glucose and fructose

5. Enrichment, “back-blending” to produce final product

slide42

Glucose, Fructose - C6H12O6

Starch - amylose

glucose fructose fructose - “chair”

sucrose

High Fructose Corn Syrup

1. Starch from Corn

2. Treat with alpha-amylase oligosaccharides

3. Treat with glucoamylase  glucose

4. Treat with glucose isomerase  mixture of glucose and fructose

5. Enrichment, “back-blending” to produce final product

slide43

Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants

  • Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume)
  • Used originally to make licorice candy
  • 30 x as sweet as table sugar
  • more than limited consumption has health effects
  • potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments
slide44

Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants

  • Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume)
  • Used originally to make licorice candy
  • 30 x as sweet as table sugar
  • more than limited consumption has health effects
  • potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments
  • Stevia – from sweetleaf plant, Stevia
  • Widespread use in Japan
  • regulatory issues, starting to be used elsewhere
slide45

Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants

  • Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume)
  • Used originally to make licorice candy
  • 30 x as sweet as table sugar
  • more than limited consumption has health effects
  • potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments
  • Stevia – from sweetleaf plant, Stevia
  • Widespread use in Japan
  • regulatory issues, starting to be used elsewhere
  • Miraculin – protein from miracle fruit, Synsepalum
  • - Not sweet, but modifies taste receptors so foods are sweet
slide46

Tuesday March 8 – optional assignment. Due Tuesday March 22.

Write a brief paragraph, using proper English grammar, that explains: What was the “Sugar Trade Triangle” - what were the major elements (both geographical and trading items)? How did it impact the history of the U.S.A.?