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Objectives. EDUC 3100. What is an Objective?. A statement of what we want students to know, do, and feel. A teacher must be able to ASSESS the objective in some way. Synonyms: Intended Learning Outcome, Achievement Target, Standard, Indicator. Bloom’s Taxonomy.

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objectives

Objectives

EDUC 3100

what is an objective
What is an Objective?
  • A statement of what we want students to know, do, and feel.
  • A teacher must be able to ASSESS the objective in some way.

Synonyms: Intended Learning Outcome, Achievement Target, Standard, Indicator

bloom s taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists.  Together,  they developed a classification of levels of thinking  behaviors thought to be important in the processes of learning.

slide4

Bloom and co. actually identified three domains of educational activities.

    • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
    • Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)
    • Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
  • Best known is the Cognitive taxonomy as follows
knowledge
Knowledge
  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter

Knowledge

comprehension
Comprehension
  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences

Comprehension

Knowledge

application
Application
  • use information
  • use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

analysis
Analysis
  • seeing patterns
  • organization of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

synthesis
Synthesis
  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalize from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

evaluation
Evaluation
  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess value of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognize subjectivity

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

bloom s mnemonic
Bloom’s Mnemonic
  • Karen
  • Can
  • Add
  • And
  • Subtract
  • Easily

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

original terms new terms

Bloom’s Taxonomy - Revised

Original Terms New Terms
  • Evaluation
  • Synthesis
  • Analysis
  • Application
  • Comprehension
  • Knowledge
  • Creating
  • Evaluating
  • Analyzing
  • Applying
  • Understanding
  • Remembering

(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)

change in terms
Change in Terms
  • The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms.
  • As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate.
  • The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs
  • Some subcategories were reorganized.
  • The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.
  • Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.

(http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003) ; Pohl, 2000, p. 8)

slide14

Create a mnemonic for the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

Creating

Evaluating

Analyzing

Applying

Understanding

Remembering

affective domain attitudes
Affective DomainAttitudes
  • Receiving:
    • Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.
  • Responding
    • Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon.  Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).
  • Valuing
    • The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner ín overt behavior and are often identifiable.
affective domain cont attitudes
Affective Domain (cont.)Attitudes
  • Organization
    • Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system.  The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. 
  • Internalizing values (characterization)
    • Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).
psychomotor domain skills
Psychomotor DomainSkills
  • Perception
    • The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity.  This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.
  • Set
    • Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).
  • Guided Response
    • The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.
slide18

Mechanism

    • This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. 
  • Complex Overt Response
    • The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. 
slide19

Adaptation

    • Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements
  • Origination
    • Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.  Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.
webb s depth of knowledge dok 1 recall and reproduction
Webb’s Depth of KnowledgeDOK 1: Recall and Reproduction

Recall or recognition of a fact, information (definitions, terms, dates, etc.), concept, or procedure

  • Identify who, when, what where, and why
  • Recall facts, terms, concepts, trends, generalizations and theories
  • Use a variety of tools
  • Recognize or identify specific information
  • Identify specific information
  • Define
  • Describe (recall, recite or reproduce information)
  • Identify purposes
dok 2 application of skills and concepts
DOK 2: Application of Skills and Concepts

Use of information, conceptual knowledge, following or selecting appropriate procedures, two or more steps with decision points along the way, routine problems, organizing/displaying data

  • Describe or explain how or why
  • Give an example
  • Describe and explain issues and problems, purposes, patterns, sources, reasons, points of view or processes
  • Compare
  • Classify, sort items into meaningful categories
  • Convert information from one form to another
dok 3 strategic thinking
DOK 3: Strategic Thinking

Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps to approach a problem; requires some decision making and justification; abstract and complex; often having more than one possible answer 

  • Use concepts to solve problems
  • Use evidence to justify
  • Propose and evaluate solutions to problems
  • Recognize and explain misconceptions
  • Cite evidence and develop a logical argument for concepts
  • Reason and draw conclusions
  • Disseminate among plausible answers
  • Analyze similarities and differences in issues and problems
  • Apply concepts to new situations
  • Make connections across time and place to explain a concept or big idea
  • Recognize and explain patterns
  • Make and support decisions
  • Evaluate effectiveness and impact
dok 4 extended thinking
DOK 4: Extended Thinking

An investigation or application to real work; requires time to research, think, and process multiple conditions of the problem or task non-routine manipulations, across disciplines/content areas/multiple sources

  • Connect ideas and concepts within the content area or among content areas
  • Examine and explain alternative perspectives across a variety of sources
  • Describe and illustrate how common themes and concepts are found across time and place
  • Make predictions with evidence as support
  • Develop a logical argument
  • Plan and develop solutions to problems
  • Analyze and synthesize information from multiple sources
  • Complex reasoning with planning, investigating or developing a product
  • Apply and adapt information to real-world situations
  • Participation in simulations and activities requiring higher-level thinking
cognitive demand
Cognitive Demand
  • Cognitive demand relates to how much thinking is called for by the students for a specific task. For example, routine memorization involves low cognitive demand, no matter how advanced the content. Applying, analyzing, and evaluating concepts involves high cognitive demand, even for basic content. Both types of cognitive demand are associated with student performance and are necessary in the classroom.
identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Solve geometric proofs using the appropriate theorems.

APPLICATION

High cognitive demand

identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives1
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Explain the “melting pot” philosophy.

COMPREHENSION

Low cognitive demand

identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives2
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Compare and contrast enrichment versus acceleration in terms of readiness, academic benefits, and social and emotional adjustment for precocious youth.

ANALYZE

High cognitive demand

identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives3
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Create a poem using metaphors

SYNTHESIS

High cognitive demand

identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives4
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Define the associative property of addition

KNOWLEDGE

Low cognitive demand

identify the level of bloom s taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives5
Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.
  • Justify the selection of materials for an insulated box.

EVALUATE

High cognitive demand

so what do we use this for
So What Do We Use This For?
  • To write objectives
  • To help us match objectives to assessment methods and instructional tasks
you try
You Try!
  • Identify the level of cognitive demand of the given objectives from the state core and put them on the appropriate shape.
  • Then put each objective on the correct level of Bloom’s taxonomy on the board.
homework
Homework
  • Bring the state core to class on Monday for the topic you want to use for your TWS
  • Remember your Contextual Factors paper is due Monday
    • Identify at least three contextual factors that influence student learning – positive or negative. Use one student, one classroom, and one schoolwide or community factor. Then provide suggestions for how you will respond to the factor. Typed, 1-2 pages, double spaced
review activity bloom s taxonomy
Review Activity: Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Select three indicators from the state core
  • Determine the cognitive demand of the indicators and write them on the appropriate shape.
  • Place the indicators on the correct section of Bloom’s taxonomy on the board.
slide35

Backwards Design

1. Identify Desired Results

2. Determine Acceptable Evidence

OBJECTIVES

ASSESSMENTS

3. Plan of Action

LESSONS

why backward
Why “backward”?
  • The stages are logical but they go against habits
    • We’re used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas - before clarifying our performance goals for students
    • By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results
slide38

Unpacking the Standards

What are the objectives from the core?

stop and work
STOP AND WORK
  • Get out your core curriculum and find the Standards, Objectives, and Indicators that you want to teach for your TWS.
  • Write them on your green rounded rectangle (lower half)
    • Ex: Standard 2, Objective 3,

b. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.

c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.

big ideas are typically revealed via
“Big Ideas” are typically revealed via –
  • Core concepts
  • Focusing themes
  • On-going debates/issues
  • Insightful perspectives
  • Organizing theory
  • Overarching principle
  • Underlying assumption
big ideas examples
Big Ideas: Examples
  • Words are power.
  • Reading is more than just the words on a page.
  • Relationships between quantities can be represented by graphs, tables, and equations.
  • Healthy nutrition practices influence all aspects of our lives.
  • All life is interrelated as evidenced by the differences and similarities among species.
more big idea examples
More Big Idea Examples
  • Great artists often break with conventions to better express what they see and feel.
  • Price is a function of supply and demand.
  • Friendships can be deepened or undone by hard times
  • History is the story told by the “winners”
  • F = ma (weight is not mass)
  • Math models simplify physical relations – and even sometimes distort relations – to deepen our understanding of them
  • The storyteller rarely tells the meaning of the story
slide43

You’ve got to go

below the surface...

slide44

to uncover the

really ‘big ideas.’

slide45

Unpacking the Standards

What are the “big ideas” that flow from the objective or that the objective is based on?

What are the objectives from the core?

slide46

Predictions about the weather influence people’s lives.

  • Standard 2, Objective 3,
  • b. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.
  • c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.
slide47

Unpacking the Standards

What are the “big ideas” that flow from the objective or that the objective is based on?

What is the overall unit objective?

What are the standards, objectives, and indicators from the core?

slide48

Predictions about the weather influence people’s lives.

Understand that the elements of weather can be observed, measured, and recorded to make predictions.

  • Standard 2, Objective 3,
  • Identify and use the tools of a meteorologist (e.g., measure rainfall using rain gauge, measure air pressure using barometer, measure temperature using a thermometer).
  • Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.
  • Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.
stop and work1
STOP AND WORK
  • What “Big Idea” are the listed standards, objectives, and indicators based on?
  • Write your “Big Idea” for your TWS on the top half of your rounded rectangle. Talk with your group about it.
  • Write your overall unit objective.
knowledge skills and dispositions
Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions
  • What knowledge, skills, and dispositions follow from the “Big Ideas” and the specific indicators to be taught?
  • What “teachable chunks” can be described?
    • “Expert blindspot”
identify the cognitive load
Identify the Cognitive Load
  • Low cognitive load objectives - what we want students to know (rectangles)
  • High cognitive load objectives - what we want students to be able to do (ovals)
write as an objective
Write as an Objective

1. Start with a verb

    • Use your list of Bloom’s or DOK verbs
  • Make sure each objective includes only one action and one content part
  • State as a student outcome (not what the teacher will do)
  • Focus attention on the Big Idea and are part of the core curriculum
  • Include high and low cognitive load objectives
slide53

a. Identify and use the tools of a meteorologist (e.g., measure rainfall using rain gauge, measure air pressure using barometer, measure temperature using a thermometer).

Label a rain gauge, barometer, and thermometer

Use a rain gauge to measure rainfall

Use a barometer to measure air pressure

Use a thermometer to measure temperature

b. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.

Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.

c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.

Create a three day weather forecast

Support your weather forecast using observable evidence

reading is more than just words on the paper
Reading is more than just words on the paper.
  • Read the assigned book fluently.
slide59

Read a story and write the main idea and then illustrate the character development using a foldable book.

slide60

The economic history in America before the civil war contributed to the development of that war.

slide61

Prioritizing Desired Results

Worth being

familiar with

Must know and be able to do

Enduring Understanding

Big Idea

slide62

Unpacking the Standards

Low cognitive load objective

High cognitive load objective

High cognitive load objective

Big Idea

Low cognitive load objective

Unit Objective

High cognitive load objective

Core standards, objectives, indicators

Low cognitive load objective

High cognitive load objective

stop and work2
STOP AND WORK
  • UNPACK each indicator from the core and write an objective using the Bloom’s verbs. Make sure each objective is chunked so that you can teach it in one lesson. Separate the objectives into low and high cognitive load. Write on the appropriate shape.
unpacking the standard assignment recap
Unpacking the Standard Assignment recap
  • Identify all the core indicators you will cover.
  • Specify the “Big Ideas” that students will acquire.
  • Break out the indicators into teachable chunks separated by high and low cognitive load.
  • Rough draft due in class next time so we can work on them.