Unit 4—Enlightenment & Revolutions. Mr. Barchetto MMW-Honors. England: Tudor Queens & Stuart Kings. Henry VIII Reading The Tudors & Stuarts Genealogical Chart Using Basic Skills worksheet 18 and a partner study family tree and answer the questions. Review Answers.
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Where does England’s religious problems stem from?
Elizabeth & The Church of England
Who is Mary Stuart?
What does she want?
Mary Stuart Queen of the Scots
Why is he upset?
What does he want?
What is the Spanish Armada?
What is the result?
Phillip II & The Spanish Armada
Why does Elizabeth have Parliament problems?
Elizabeth: Financial & Parliament Problems
The Magna Carta (1215)
American Declaration of Independence (1776)
Rule of Law
Laws exist and all citizens must obey them. The king is not above the law. If the king breaks the law, his vassals can remove him from the throne.
King George III has broken the laws and refused rights of colonists; the people therefore "throw off his government of tyranny and reestablish rights under the rule of law.
Even though the king is the nation's leader and authority, his vassals have both the right and the responsibility to check or limit his power.
The king has demanded that some of his subjects give up the right of representation in legislature.
Power of the Purse
The king cannot levy any extra taxes "without the common consent of the realm." Without new taxes, the king cannot increase his army and overturn the balance of power by attacking his vassals.
The king has imposed taxes on colonists without their consent.
Security of Private Property
Things that do not belong to the king (land,tools) cannot be taken from their owners without their consent. This agreement not only preserves right of subjects to own property but also stops the king from becoming richer or more powerful by taking property from his subjects.
The king has "plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, destroyed the lives of our people."
There are limits to the powers of both the king and his barons. This idea relates to balance of power.
Governments should protect the rights and liberties of citizens. The king has opposed citizens' rights, and liberties. A new nation must be formed to protect them.
Due Process of Law
Someone who is accused of a crime cannot simply be condemned by the king or his sheriffs. There is a process for hearing both sides of the case and making a fair judgment.
The king has refused to agree to laws related to justice; has made some judges dependent on his will.
Judgment By One's Peers
This idea is the "seed" of our jury system, which guarantees that the guilt or innocence of a citizen accused of a crime will be decided by a jury of his or her peers.
The king has deprived many colonial citizens of the benefits of trial by jury.
James I to Parliament in 1610:
Tories vs. Whigs
Looking at the following cartoon what political term will be used to describe the English government from 1689-onwards?
Did the English people have a right to rebel against Charles I in 1642 and against James II in 1688? Could a ruler lawfully be overthrown by his subjects?