Organic Chemistry Ben Pearl, Rachel Breece, BibyEscobar, Ethan Mikuta May 29th, 2014 Science - 6
Definition – Organic Chem. • In chemistry, organic means the chemical is based on a combo of carbon atoms. • It does not matter whether the chemical is natural or man-made.
Carbon Bonds • Carbon has 4 valence electrons, which means that carbons wants to from 4 covalent bonds. • There are 3 simple hydrocarbons.
Basic Hydrocarbons • Alkanes – All carbon – single bonds • Alkenes – At least one carbon – double bond. • Alkynes – One triple bond. • Hydrocarbon – an organic compound composed only of hydrogen and carbon, like the alkanes, alkenes, & alkynes
Hydrocarbon Examples • Alkynes • Alkanes • Alkenes
Carbon Rings • Sometimes, carbon forms rings with the other carbons or other elements. • The most frequently seen ring is the benzene rings (C6H6)
Naming Organic Comps. • The name of on organic compound starts with the longest chain of compounds. • The first four names need to be memorized using “Mary Eats Peanut Butter” (Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane)
Naming Organic Comps. - #2 • The remainder are named by using the latin word for # of carbons (penta– 5, pentane has a chain of carbons) • Alkanes follow the formula CnH2N+2 • The naming of Alkenes & Alkynes are similar, except there can be no methane or methyne, it’s impossible to have a double or triple bond with one carbon.
Examples • Propane • Butyne
Properties - #1 • Properties have higher boiling temps. than alkenes (alkanes = -87, ethene = -104) • In a solution of dissolved bromine, one alkene will react, causing the bromine to produce a colorless liquid.
Production • Much of starting material comes from crude oil. • Crude oil is a mix of many hydrocarbons and other compounds – so it’s useless. • Two primary methods of separating and generating compounds from crude oil – Frac. Dist. & Catalytic Cracking
Fractional Distillation (Fracking) • At oil refinery, crude oil is heated to 200 degrees and then fed to fracking tower for further heating. • Its component rise and cool in tower. • Lower chains condense sooner & found near bottom. Opposite for shorter chains.
Catalytic Cracking • The lighter fractions are in higher demand then the longer chains. Cracking solves that issue. • Silica and alumina fragments are used. • At 500 degrees, the catalyst causes longer chains to break into shorter alkane and alkene chains.
Fracking Mnemonic • Fractionating Tower process R(efinery Gas) – Rabid G(asoline) – Goats N(aptha)- Nip K(erosene)- Kittens D(iesel)- Daringly F(uel Oil)- For L(ubricating Oil)- Loving R(esidue)- Reasons