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AAUS Scientific Diving History and Regulations. Objectives. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to: Define scientific diving Outline the History of Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA commercial diving standards Identify the mission, purposes and goals of AAUS.

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objectives
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to:
    • Define scientific diving
    • Outline the History of Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA commercial diving standards
    • Identify the mission, purposes and goals of AAUS
objectives3
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to:
    • Outline the operational control mechanism within Scientific Diving
    • Discuss policies, procedures, and requirements detailed in AAUS Scientific Diving Standards
scientific diving
Scientific Diving
  • Scientific diving is defined (29 CFR 1910.402) as diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks
history of the scientific diving exemption
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • In 1982, OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial diving regulations (29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart T) under certain conditions which are outlined below
  • The final guidelines for the exemption became effective in 1985 (Federal Register, Vol. 50, No. 6, p. 1046)
history of the scientific diving exemption6
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • 1975 - Petition filed by United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America AFL-CIO
  • Urged an emergency temporary standard (ETS) be issued with respect to diving operations
  • ETS issued on June 15, 1976 to be effective July 15, 1976
history of the scientific diving exemption7
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • Challenged in U S Court of Appeals by several diving contractors
  • ETS withdrawn in November 1976 and permanent standard was formulated
  • Final Standard for Commercial Diving became effective October 20, 1977
  • Scientific diving was not exempted
history of the scientific diving exemption8
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) was formed to petition OSHA for an exemption
  • Submitted arguments for ANPR on October 15, 1979
  • Self-regulation
  • Consensual standard for over 20 years
  • Low accident incidence rate
  • Final Ruling granting exemption effective November 28, 1982
scientific diving exemption 29cfr 1910 401 2 iv
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • OSHA exempted from commercial diving regulations any diving operation defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction and control of a diving program containing at least the following elements:
scientific diving exemption 29cfr 1910 401 2 iv10
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • A diving safety manual which includes at a minimum: Procedures covering all diving operations specific to the program; including procedures for emergency care, recompression and evacuation; and the criteria for diver training and certification
scientific diving exemption 29cfr 1910 401 2 iv11
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • Diving control (safety) board, with the majority of its members being active scientific divers, which shall at a minimum have the authority to:
    • approve and monitor diving projects, review and revise the diving safety manual, assure compliance with the manual, certify the depths to which a diver has been trained, take disciplinary action for unsafe practices, and assure adherence to the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by and is in continuous contact with another diver in the water) for scuba diving
29cfr 1910 401 2 iv appendix b to subpart t
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • OSHA has granted an exemption for scientific diving from commercial diving regulations under the following guidelines (Appendix B to Subpart T):
      • The Diving Control Board consists of a majority of active scientific divers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program's operation
29cfr 1910 401 2 iv appendix b to subpart t13
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement of science; therefore, information and data resulting from the project are non-proprietary
  • The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer
  • Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are not included within scientific diving
29cfr 1910 401 2 iv appendix b to subpart t14
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must use scientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and therefore, are scientists or scientists-in-training
slide16
AAUS
  • Incorporated in California in 1983
  • Active since before the OSHA exemption of 1982
  • Currently over 100 organizational members
  • Recognized by OSHA as the scientific diving standard setting organization
slide17
AAUS

101 Bienville Blvd

Dauphin Island, AL 36528

251-861-7504 Phone

Email: aaus@disl.org

Web Address: http://www.aaus.org

slide18
AAUS
  • AAUS Organizational Members, or OM(s), include Universities, Marine Labs, Museums, and others involved in scientific diving activities throughout the United States and around the world
aaus mission statement
AAUS Mission Statement
  • The mission of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) is to facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications, and operations
aaus purposes and goals
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To develop, review and revise standards for safe scientific diving certification and the safe operation of scientific diving programs;
  • To collect, review and distribute statistics relating to scientific diving activities and scientific diving incidents;
aaus purposes and goals21
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To conduct symposia and workshops to educate the membership and others in safe scientific diving programs and practices;
  • To represent the scientific diving interests of the membership before other organizations and government agencies, and;
aaus purposes and goals22
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To fund research, education and development of safe scientific diving programs and practices
research vs scientific diver rec diver aaus
Research vs. ScientificDiver (Rec.) Diver (AAUS)
  • NO STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTION
  • PRACTICAL TRAINING ONLY
  • VARIABLE NUMBER OF TRAINING DIVES
  • NO MEDICAL
  • LIFETIME CERT
  • NOT RECOGNIZED AS A PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION
  • OSHA DEFINED
  • MUST MEET AAUS TRAINING STANDARDS
  • AAUS MEDICAL REQUIRED
  • MINIMUM 100 HOURS TRAINING
  • MUST MAINTAIN CERTIFICATION STATUS
  • EMERGENCY TRAINING REQUIRED
  • RECOGNIZED AS A PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION
aaus diving standards
AAUS Diving Standards
  • These standards were developed and written by the AAUS by compiling the policies set forth in the diving manuals of several university, private, and governmental scientific diving programs
aaus diving standards26
AAUS Diving Standards
  • These programs share a common heritage with the scientific diving program at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
  • Adherence to the SIO standards has proven both feasible and effective in protecting the health and safety of scientific divers since 1954
volume 1

Volume 1

Sections 1 through 6

Required For All

OM Diving Manuals

purpose
Purpose
  • The purpose of AAUS Scientific Diving Standards is to ensure that all scientific diving is conducted in a manner that will maximize protection for scientific divers from accidental injury and/or illness, and set forth standards for training and certification that will allow a working reciprocity between organizational members
operational control
Operational Control
  • OM Auspices includes any scientific diving operation in which an OM is connected because of ownership of any equipment used, locations selected, or relationship with the individual(s) concerned
operational control31
Operational Control
  • This includes all cases involving the operations of employees of the OM or employees of auxiliary organizations, where such employees are acting within the scope of their employment, and operations of other persons who are engaged in scientific diving of the OM or are diving as members of an organization recognized by the OM
operational control32
Operational Control
  • It is the OM’s responsibility to adhere to the AAUS Standards
  • The administration of the local diving program resides with the OM’s Diving Control Board (DCB)
operational control33
Operational Control
  • Each OM is responsible for the development and maintenance of a scientific diving manual containing policies and procedures that will enable the OM to meet requirements for local environments and conditions as well as complying with the AAUS minimal standards
operational control34
Operational Control
  • The regulations in the OM’s Diving Manual shall be observed at all locations where scientific diving is conducted
operational control35
Operational Control
  • The Diving Safety Officer (DSO) is responsible through the DCB for the conduct of the OM scientific diving program
operational control36
Operational Control
  • The DSO is empowered by the DCB and guided in the performance of the required duties by the advice of the DCB, but operational responsibility for the conduct of the local diving program is retained by the DSO
operational control37
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program’s operation
    • Shall approve and monitor diving projects
    • Shall review and revise the diving safety manual
    • Shall assure compliance with the diving safety manual
operational control38
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Shall certify the depths to which a diver has been trained
    • Shall take disciplinary action for unsafe practices
    • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for scuba diving
operational control39
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Shall act as the official representative for the OM in matters concerning the scientific diving program
    • Shall act as a board of appeal to consider diver-related problems
    • Shall recommend the issue, reissue, or the revocation of diving certifications
operational control40
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Shall recommend changes in policy and amendments to AAUS and the OM’s diving safety manual as the need arises
    • Shall establish and/or approve training programs through which the applicants for certification can satisfy the requirements of the OM’s diving safety manual
    • Shall suspend diving programs that are considered unsafe or unwise
operational control41
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Shall establish criteria for equipment selection and use
    • Shall recommend new equipment or techniques
    • Shall establish and/or approve facilities for the inspection and maintenance of diving and associated equipment
operational control42
Operational Control
  • The DCB:
    • Shall ensure that the OM’s air station(s) meet air quality standards as described in Section 3.60 of the AAUS manual
    • Shall periodically review the DSO’s performance and program
    • Shall sit as a board of investigation to inquire into the nature and cause of diving accidents or violations of the OM’s diving safety manual
operational control43
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver:
    • For each dive, one individual shall be designated as the Lead Diver
    • This individual shall be at the dive location during the diving operation
operational control44
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver is responsible for:
    • Coordination with other known activities in the vicinity that are likely to interfere with diving operations
    • Ensuring all dive team members possess current certification and are qualified for the type of diving operation
operational control45
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver is responsible for:
    • Briefing dive team members on:
      • Dive objectives
      • Unusual hazards or environmental conditions likely to affect the safety of the diving operation
      • Modifications to diving or emergency procedures necessitated by the specific diving operation
      • Suspending diving operations if in their opinion conditions are not safe
      • Reporting to the DSO and DCB any physical problems or adverse physiological effects including symptoms of pressure-related injuries
operational control46
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver:
    • Two or more AAUS OMs engaged jointly in diving activities, or engaged jointly in the use of diving resources, shall designate one of the participating DCBs to govern the joint project
operational control47
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver:
    • A scientific diver from one OM shall apply for permission to dive under the auspices of another OM by submitting to the DSO of the host OM a Request for Diving Reciprocity Form (see AAUS Appendix 6)
    • This form must be signed by the diver’s home DSO or DCB Chair
operational control48
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver:
    • A visiting Scientific Diver may be asked to demonstrate their knowledge and skills for the planned dive
    • If the host OM denies a visiting Scientific Diver permission to dive, the host OM shall notify the visiting diver and their DCB with an explanation of all reasons for the denial
operational control49
Operational Control
  • Waiver of Requirements:
    • The organizational Diving Control Board may grant a waiver for specific requirements of training, examinations, depth certification, and minimal activity to maintain certification
consequence of violation of regulations
Consequence of Violation of Regulations
  • Failure to comply with the regulations of the diving manual may be cause for the revocation or restriction of the diver's scientific diving certificate by action of the OM DCB
introduction
Introduction
  • No person shall engage in scientific diving operations under the auspices of the OM scientific diving program unless they hold a current certification issued pursuant to the provisions of this manual
pre dive procedures
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans:
    • Dives should be planned around the competency of the least experienced diver
    • Required for all scientific diving operations
    • Must be formulated by the Lead Diver prior to the start of a project
pre dive procedures54
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include:
    • A list of participants, their qualifications and the type of certificate or certification held by each diver
    • The approximate number of proposed dives
    • The location(s) of proposed dives
pre dive procedures55
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include:
    • Estimated depth(s) and bottom time(s) anticipated
    • Decompression status and repetitive dive plans, if required
    • Proposed work, equipment, and boats to be employed
    • Any hazardous conditions anticipated
pre dive procedures56
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include:
    • An Emergency Plan with the following information:
      • Emergency contact information for each diver
      • Nearest accessible hospital
      • Nearest operational decompression chamber
      • Available means of transport
      • Emergency contact numbers appropriate for the dive location
pre dive procedures57
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities:
    • Each diver shall conduct a functional check of his/her diving equipment in the presence of the diving buddy or tender; enduring that their equipment is in proper working order and that the equipment is suitable for the planned diving operation
pre dive procedures58
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities:
    • It is the diver's responsibility and duty to refuse to dive if, in his/her judgment, conditions are unfavorable, or if he/she would be violating the precepts of his/her training, or of the OM’s diving manual
pre dive procedures59
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities:
    • It is the diver’s responsibility to notify the DSO/Lead Diver/Diving Supervisor if he/she is unfit to safely participate in diving operations
pre dive procedures60
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Equipment Evaluations:
    • Each diver shall on every dive have the capability of achieving and maintaining positive buoyancy
    • A diver’s flag shall be displayed prominently in areas frequented by boat traffic
    • Appropriate safety, and first aid equipment that is suitable for meeting project needs, and Oxygen will be available on site
pre dive procedures61
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • The environmental conditions at the site will be evaluated
diving procedures
Diving Procedures
  • Solo Diving Prohibition
    • All diving activities shall assure adherence to the buddy system
diving procedures63
Diving Procedures
  • Refusal to Dive:
    • The decision to dive is that of the diver
    • A diver may refuse to dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe for them to make the dive
    • The ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the individual diver
diving procedures64
Diving Procedures
  • Termination of the Dive:
    • A diver will terminate the dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to continue the dive, unless it compromises the safety of another diver already in the water
diving procedures65
Diving Procedures
  • Termination of the Dive:
    • The diver shall terminate the dive while there is still sufficient tank pressure to permit the diver to safely reach the surface, including decompression time, or to safely reach an additional air source at the decompression station
diving procedures66
Diving Procedures
  • Emergencies and Deviations from Regulations:
    • Any diver may deviate from the requirements of this standard to the extent necessary to prevent or minimize a situation that is likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or major environmental damage
    • Such actions require a written report be submitted to the OM DCB explaining circumstances and justifications
post dive procedures
Post-Dive Procedures
  • After the completion of a dive, each diver shall report any physical problems, symptoms of decompression sickness, or equipment malfunctions
flying after diving or ascending to altitude
Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following a Single No-Decompression Dive is 12 hours
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following Multiple Dives Per Day or Multiple Days of Diving is 18 hours
flying after diving or ascending to altitude69
Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following Dives Requiring Decompression Stops is 24 hours
  • Divers should follow the appropriate guidelines for preflight surface intervals before ascending to Altitude above 1000 feet (300 meters), unless the decompression procedure used has accounted for the increase in elevation
diving log
Diving Log
  • Every dive made under the auspices of an OM shall be logged with the OM Diving Safety Officer
  • Minimum Dive Log Information Includes:
    • Date; Time In/Out; Location; Diving Mode; Diving Classification; Gas Used; Max Depths; Name of Diver, Buddy, and Lead Diver; Decompression Method; Detailed report of any near or actual incidents
accident incident reporting
Accident / Incident Reporting
  • All diving incidents requiring recompression treatment, or resulting in moderate or serious injury, or death shall be reported to the OMs Diving Control Board and AAUS
general policy
General Policy
  • All equipment shall meet standards as determined by the OM DSO and DCB
  • Equipment that is subjected to extreme usage under adverse conditions should require more frequent testing and maintenance
  • All equipment shall be regularly examined by the person using it
regulators
Regulators
  • Regulators will consist of a first stage, a primary second stage, an alternate air source (such as an octopus second stage or redundant air supply), and a submersible pressure gauge
  • The regulator must also provide a IP hose for connecting to a power inflator
  • Regulators to be used with a dry suit must have an additional port for an IP hose to connect to the suit inflator
flotation devices
Flotation Devices
  • Each diver shall have the capability of achieving and maintaining positive buoyancy
  • Buoyancy compensators, drysuits or other variable volume BCD shall be equipped with an exhaust valve
  • Divers wearing a drysuit will also wear a BCD
timing devices depth and pressure gauge
Timing Devices, Depth, and Pressure Gauge
  • Both members of the diving pair must have an underwater timing device, an approved depth indicator, and a submersible pressure gauge
determination of decompression status
Determination of Decompression Status
  • A set of diving tables, approved by the DCB, must be available at the dive location
  • Dive computers may be utilized in place of diving tables but only those makes and models of dive computers specifically approved by the DCB or their designee (DSO) may be used
support equipment
Support Equipment
  • A first aid kit adequate for the diving operation shall be available at the dive location
  • Oxygen shall be available at the dive location for emergency situations
support equipment79
Support Equipment
  • A diver's flag shall be displayed prominently whenever diving is conducted under circumstances where required or where water traffic is probable
air quality standards
Air Quality Standards
  • Breathing air for scuba shall meet CGA (Compressed Gas Association) Grade E specifications
scope
Scope
  • This section describes training for the non-diving applicant, previously not certified for diving, and equivalency for the certified diver
evaluations
Evaluations
  • Medical Examination:
    • The applicant for training shall be certified to be medically qualified for diving by a licensed physician before proceeding with the training outlined in sections four and five
    • Details of this examination are discussed in section six
evaluations84
Evaluations
  • Swimming Evaluation:
    • Without the use of swim aids, applicants for certification under AAUS standards must:
      • Swim underwater for a distance of 25 yards without surfacing
      • Swim 400 yards in less than 12 minutes
      • Tread water for 10 minutes, or 2 minutes without the use of hands
      • Transport another person of equal size a distance of 25 yards in the water
evaluations85
Evaluations
  • Scuba Training - As a minimum in a pool or sheltered water, the non-scuba certified trainee must satisfy the DSO of their ability to:
    • Clear their face mask
    • Alternate between snorkel and scuba while kicking
    • Air share as both the donor and recipient, with and without a face mask
    • Demonstrate understanding of underwater signs and signals
    • Assist and transport a passive simulated victim of an accident
    • Remove and replace equipment while submerged
    • Demonstrate acceptable watermanship
evaluations86
Evaluations
  • Written Examination – The non-scuba certified trainee and persons desiring equivalency recognition must demonstrate knowledge of:
    • Function, care, use, and maintenance of diving equipment
    • Physics and physiology of diving
    • Diving regulations and precautions
    • Near-shore currents and waives
    • Dangerous marine animals
    • Emergency procedures, including buoyant ascent and air sharing
evaluations87
Evaluations
  • Written Examination (continued):
    • Currently acceptable decompression procedures
    • Proper use of dive tables
    • Underwater communications
    • Aspects of freshwater and altitude diving
    • Hazards of breath-hold diving and ascents
    • Diving hazards
    • Cause, symptoms, treatment & prevention of: Near drowning, air embolism, CO2 excess, squeezes, O2 poisoning, N2 narcosis, exhaustion & panic, respiratory fatigue, motion sickness, hypothermia, and hypoxia/anoxia
evaluations88
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation – At a minimum the non-scuba certified trainee and persons desiring equivalency recognition satisfy the DSO of their ability to:
    • Surface dive to a depth of 10 ft without scuba
    • Air sharing as both donor and receiver
    • Enter & Leave water while wearing scuba gear (surf or vessel)
evaluations89
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued):
    • Kick on the surface 400 yards while wearing scuba gear but not breathing from scuba unit
    • Demonstrate judgment adequate for safe diving
    • Complete a simulated emergency swimming ascent
    • Clearing of mask and regulator while submerged
evaluations90
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued):
    • Achieve and maintain neutral buoyancy while submerged
    • Demonstrate techniques of self-rescue and buddy assist
    • Navigate underwater
    • Plan and execute a dive
evaluations91
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued):
    • Successfully complete 5 openwater dives for a minimum total time of 3 hours (11/2 hrs cumulative bottom time on scuba)
    • No more than 3 dives shall be made in one day
certification types
Certification Types
  • There are two scientific diver certification types under AAUS standards:
    • Temporary Diver Permit
    • Scientific Diver Certification
temporary diver permit
Temporary Diver Permit
  • This permit constitutes a waiver of the requirements of Sec. 5 and is issued only following a demonstration of the required proficiency in diving
  • The permit is usually reserved for visiting scientists or personnel, including volunteers, not normally associated with OM programs
  • It is valid only for a limited time, as determined by the OM DCB
temporary diver permit95
Temporary Diver Permit
  • This permit is not to be construed as a mechanism to circumvent existing standards set forth in this manual
scientific diver certification
Scientific Diver Certification
  • The scientific diver certification is a professional diving qualification; it has no equivalency in the recreational diving community
  • Eligibility:
    • Only persons involved with scientific diving under OM auspices are eligible for scientific diving training and certification
scientific diver certification97
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Prerequisites:
    • Application to the OM DSO
    • Medical approval
    • Issuance of a Diver-In-Training Permit (signifies certification as a diver through an internationally recognized certifying agency or successfully training specified in Section 4)
    • Other OM defined prerequisites (example: release & waiver, etc.)
scientific diver certification98
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Scientific diver certification is issued to personnel participating in scientific diving under OM auspices
  • The diver must complete additional theoretical aspects and practical training for a cumulative minimum time of 100 hours
scientific diver certification99
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Required Training Topics (include but not limited to):
  • Diving Emergency Care Training
  • Dive Rescue
  • Dive Physics
  • Dive Physiology
  • Scientific Diving Regulations & History
  • Dive Environments
  • Decompression Theory & Application
  • Scientific Method
  • Data Gathering Techniques
  • HazMat Training
scientific diver certification100
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Suggested Training Topics (include, but not limited to):
    • Specific Diving Modes
    • Small Boat Operation
    • Specialized Breathing Gases
    • Specialized Environments & Conditions
    • Specialized Diving Equipment
scientific diver certification101
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Practical training must include a checkout dive evaluating the OW skills listed in section 4 followed by at least eleven ocean or openwater dives in a variety of dive sites and conditions, for a cumulative bottom time of 6 hours
  • These dives must be supervised by a certified Scientific Diver with experience in the type of diving planned and with the knowledge and permission of the DSO
scientific diver certification102
Scientific Diver Certification
  • A diver's qualifications, as stated on the initial certificate, may be changed by the DSO/DCB to reflect additional experience and/or training, or changes to the divers certification status
depth certifications
Depth Certifications
  • In addition to the minimum 12 dive requirement to qualify as a Scientific Diver, there are specific depth certifications and progression requirements within AAUS standards
depth certifications104
Depth Certifications
  • 30 Foot
    • This is issued after you demonstrate the skills listed in Section 4
  • 60 Foot
    • 12 logged training dives between 31 and 60 feet for a minimum total time of 4 hours
  • 100 and 130 Foot
    • 4 logged training dives near the maximum depth category
depth certifications105
Depth Certifications
  • Depths greater than 130 ft
    • A diver may be certified to depths of 150 and 190 ft after the completion of four training dives near each depth
  • Diving on air is not permitted beyond a depth of 190 ft
depth certifications106
Depth Certifications
  • Certification Progression
    • Divers are required to progress from the 30 ft certification to the 60 ft certification and successively to the deeper certification levels after successfully completing the mandatory dives and cumulative time requirements
    • These dives are planned and executed under close supervision of a diver certified to the certification depth and with the knowledge and permission of the DSO
maintaining certification
Maintaining Certification
  • During any 12-month period, each certified scientific diver must log a minimum of 12 dives
  • At least one dive must be logged near the maximum depth of the diver's certification during each 6-month period
    • Divers certified to 150 feet or deeper may satisfy these requirements with dives to 130 feet or over
maintaining certification108
Maintaining Certification
  • Must maintain current medical; and current certification in first aid, CPR and oxygen administration
  • Maintaining Fitness to Dive
    • It is the divers responsibility to maintain fitness to dive
    • Fitness to dive refers to general physical fitness adequate to meet projected project goals and diving conditions, as well as fitness on a day to day basis including, but not limited to: proper attitude, hydration, and nutrition
revocation of certification
Revocation of Certification
  • A diving certificate may be revoked or restricted for cause by the OM DSO or DCB
  • Diving Manual Standards violations or other governmental subdivisions not in conflict with diving standards may be considered cause
recertification
Recertification
  • A diver whose certificate expires or is revoked may be re-certified after complying with conditions imposed by the OM DSO or DCB
general medical requirements
General Medical Requirements
  • The OM shall determine that divers have passed a current diving physical examination and have been declared by the examining physician to be fit to engage in diving activities as may be limited or restricted in the medical evaluation report
general medical requirements113
General Medical Requirements
  • All medical evaluations shall be performed by, or under the direction of, a licensed physician; preferably one trained in diving/undersea medicine
  • The diver should be free of any chronic disabling disease and be free of any conditions for which restrictions from diving are generally recommended
medical evaluation shall be completed
Medical evaluation shall be completed:
  • Before a diver may begin diving
  • Thereafter, at 5 year intervals up to age 40, every 3 years after age 40, and every 2 years after age 60 from the date of initial evaluation or last equivalent evaluation
  • After any major injury or illness, or any condition requiring hospitalization for more than 24 hours
medical examination forms
Medical Examination Forms
  • Medical examination forms detailing the testing requirements and information to provide to the physician are available from the OM DSO
  • Written copies of the individual’s fitness to dive report prepared by the examining physician shall be obtained by the OM
volume 2117
Volume 2
  • Volume 2 of the AAUS Standards addresses areas of scientific diving beyond standard open circuit scuba using air and are beyond the scope of this introductory module
volume 2118
Volume 2
  • Examples of these diving modes and environments include:
    • Nitrox
    • Aquarium Diving Operations
    • Staged Decompression
    • Saturation
    • Surface Supplied
    • Rebreathers
    • Mixed Gas
study questions
Study Questions
  • Use the following study questions to review some of the information presented in this self study module
  • When you are finished you can print out your study questions results
self study questions
Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state a scientific diver certification can be revoked or restricted for cause by the Organizational Member DSO or DCB.

  • True
  • False
self study questions121
Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state a scientific diver certification can be revoked or restricted for cause by the Organizational Member DSO or DCB.

  • True
  • False
self study questions122
Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards states: "The decision to dive is that of the diver. A diver may refuse to dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe for them to make the dive.“

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards states: "The decision to dive is that of the diver. A diver may refuse to dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe for them to make the dive.“

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

The ultimate responsibility for safe diving procedures rests with the ______.

  • DSO
  • DCB
  • Lead Diver
  • Individual Diver
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Self Study Questions

The ultimate responsibility for safe diving procedures rests with the ______.

  • DSO
  • DCB
  • Lead Diver
  • Individual Diver
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Self Study Questions

Select all of the topics included in AAUS Volume 2 Standards.

  • Nitrox
  • Aquarium Diving Operations
  • Staged Decompression
  • Saturation
  • Surface Supplied
  • Rebreathers
  • Mixed Gas
  • Air
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Self Study Questions

Select all of the topics included in AAUS Volume 2 Standards.

  • Nitrox
  • Aquarium Diving Operations
  • Staged Decompression
  • Saturation
  • Surface Supplied
  • Rebreathers
  • Mixed Gas
  • Air
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Self Study Questions

OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial diving regulations in ____. The exemption can be found in ________ of the OSHA regulations.

  • 1982 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1987 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1975 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1990 / 40CFR Part 1460, Subpart T
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Self Study Questions

OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial diving regulations in ____. The exemption can be found in ________ of the OSHA regulations.

  • 1982 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1987 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1975 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1990 / 40CFR Part 1460, Subpart T
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Self Study Questions

Select all Scientific Diver Certification requirements specified by AAUS Standards. There are a minimum of four correct answers.

  • Requires a medical examination
  • Requires a swim test
  • Requires theoretical and practical training for a cumulative minimum of 100 hours
  • Requires a minimum of 24 dives be logged during any 12-month period
  • Includes depth certification requirements
  • Requires training in specialized breathing gases
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Self Study Questions

Select all Scientific Diver Certification requirements specified by AAUS Standards. There are a minimum of four correct answers.

  • Requires a medical examination
  • Requires a swim test
  • Requires theoretical and practical training for a cumulative minimum of 100 hours
  • Requires a minimum of 24 dives be logged during any 12-month period
  • Includes depth certification requirements
  • Requires training in specialized breathing gases
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Self Study Questions

Aside from any major injury or illness, or any condition requiring hospitalization; AAUS Standards state the required interval for a diving medical examination is every 5 years for all scientific divers.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

Aside from any major injury or illness, or any condition requiring hospitalization; AAUS Standards state the required interval for a diving medical examination is every 5 years for all scientific divers.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

In addition to medical and minimum number of dives to be logged annually, AAUS standards state holders of a scientific diver certification must also maintain current certification in first aid, CPR, and oxygen administration for their certification be current.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

In addition to medical and minimum number of dives to be logged annually, AAUS standards state holders of a scientific diver certification must also maintain current certification in first aid, CPR, and oxygen administration for their certification be current.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state: "A scientific diver may not deviate from the requirements of the Diving Safety Manual.“

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state: "A scientific diver may not deviate from the requirements of the Diving Safety Manual.“

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS standards allow a diver wearing a drysuit to forego wearing a BCD.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS standards allow a diver wearing a drysuit to forego wearing a BCD.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

A major factor in obtaining the scientific diving exemption was the low accident/incident rate documented within the scientific diving community.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

A major factor in obtaining the scientific diving exemption was the low accident/incident rate documented within the scientific diving community.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.

a. Historic Slogan

b. Mission Statement

c. Purposes and Goals

  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards; collect, review and distribute statistics; conduct symposia and workshops; represent the scientific diving interests of the membership before other organizations and government agencies; and fund research, education and development of safe scientific diving programs and practices.
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Self Study Questions

Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.

a. Historic Slogan

b. Mission Statement

c. Purposes and Goals

  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards; collect, review and distribute statistics; conduct symposia and workshops; represent the scientific diving interests of the membership before other organizations and government agencies; and fund research, education and development of safe scientific diving programs and practices.
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Self Study Questions

Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.

a. Historic Slogan

b. Mission Statement

c. Purposes and Goals

  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards; collect, review and distribute statistics; conduct symposia and workshops; represent the scientific diving interests of the membership before other organizations and government agencies; and fund research, education and development of safe scientific diving programs and practices.
self study questions145
Self Study Questions

Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.

a. Historic Slogan

b. Mission Statement

c. Purposes and Goals

  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and productive scientific divers through education, research, advocacy, and the advancement of standards for scientific diving practices, certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards; collect, review and distribute statistics; conduct symposia and workshops; represent the scientific diving interests of the membership before other organizations and government agencies; and fund research, education and development of safe scientific diving programs and practices.
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Self Study Questions

AAUS standards provide information on minimum equipment configuration that you need to be aware of and apply. For example: Assuming each item attached to a regulator first stage has its own hose and port (no combination items such as an octopus/inflator), what is the minimum number of ports necessary for a first stage supporting a diver wearing a drysuit? (One cylinder, one first stage, account for all regulator items specified in AAUS standards)

  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
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Self Study Questions

AAUS standards provide information on minimum equipment configuration that you need to be aware of and apply. For example: Assuming each item attached to a regulator first stage has its own hose and port (no combination items such as an octopus/inflator), what is the minimum number of ports necessary for a first stage supporting a diver wearing a drysuit? (One cylinder, one first stage, account for all regulator items specified in AAUS standards)

  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
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Self Study Questions

Select all that apply to the operational control of a Diving Control Board. There are at least four correct answers.

  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program's operation.
  • Has operational responsibility for the conduct of the local diving program.
  • Shall establish and/or approve training programs through which the applicants for certification can satisfy the requirements of the organizational member's diving safety manual.
  • Shall be at the dive location during the diving operation.
  • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for scuba diving.
  • Empowers and guides the Diving Safety Officer in the performance of required duties.
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Self Study Questions

Select all that apply to the operational control of a Diving Control Board. There are at least four correct answers.

  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving program's operation.
  • Has operational responsibility for the conduct of the local diving program.
  • Shall establish and/or approve training programs through which the applicants for certification can satisfy the requirements of the organizational member's diving safety manual.
  • Shall be at the dive location during the diving operation.
  • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for scuba diving.
  • Empowers and guides the Diving Safety Officer in the performance of required duties.
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Self Study Questions

The fight to obtain a scientific diving exemption began in 1975 as a result of a petition filed with OSHA by the _________.

  • United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America
  • Association of Dive Contractors (ADC)
  • United Auto Workers
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)
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Self Study Questions

The fight to obtain a scientific diving exemption began in 1975 as a result of a petition filed with OSHA by the _________.

  • United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America
  • Association of Dive Contractors (ADC)
  • United Auto Workers
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)
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Self Study Questions

Unlike scientific diving, recreational diving is required by law to adhere to the buddy system for scuba diving.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

Unlike scientific diving, recreational diving is required by law to adhere to the buddy system for scuba diving.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

Select all the true statements applying to Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA Commercial Diving regulations. There are at least four correct answers.

  • diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks.
  • is exempt from commercial diving standards as long as the dives are under the supervision of a Diving Safety Officer.
  • must be under the direction and control of a diving program with a diving manual, and a Diving Control Board.
  • the tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer.
  • construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are included within scientific diving.
  • scientific divers are scientists or scientists-in-training.
  • only members of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) can qualify for the scientific diving exemption.
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Self Study Questions

Select all the true statements applying to Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA Commercial Diving regulations. There are at least four correct answers.

  • diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks.
  • is exempt from commercial diving standards as long as the dives are under the supervision of a Diving Safety Officer.
  • must be under the direction and control of a diving program with a diving manual, and a Diving Control Board.
  • the tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data gatherer.
  • construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated with commercial diving are included within scientific diving.
  • scientific divers are scientists or scientists-in-training.
  • only members of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) can qualify for the scientific diving exemption.
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Self Study Questions

One of the requirements for meeting the scientific diving exemption to OSHA commercial diving regulations is that the majority of members of an organization's Diving Control Board must be active scientific divers.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

One of the requirements for meeting the scientific diving exemption to OSHA commercial diving regulations is that the majority of members of an organization's Diving Control Board must be active scientific divers.

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

Which of the following individuals is required to be present at the scientific dive site?

  • the DSO
  • a member of the DCB
  • the Lead Diver
  • a Diving Medical Technician (DMT)/Chamber Operator
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Self Study Questions

Which of the following individuals is required to be present at the scientific dive site?

  • the DSO
  • a member of the DCB
  • the Lead Diver
  • a Diving Medical Technician (DMT)/Chamber Operator
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Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state: "Under all circumstances, a diver will terminate the dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to continue the dive.“

  • True
  • False
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Self Study Questions

AAUS Standards state: "Under all circumstances, a diver will terminate the dive, without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to continue the dive.“

  • True
  • False