Scripps Institution of Oceanography & Scientific Diving Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California
Scientific Diving “Scientific diving is diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to perform scientific research tasks.” As defined by OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.402)
Scientific Diving • The purpose of the project using scientific • diving is the advancement of science. The • tasks of a scientific diver are those of an • observer and data gatherer. • Scientific divers, based on the nature of their • activities, must use scientific expertise in • studying the underwater environment, and, • therefore are scientists, or scientists-in- • training.
Diving as a Research Tool • Scientific divers must be trained to use this • tool to a level of proficiency that allows them • to focus on the research task. • Most scientific institutions and universities • require extensive training and specialized • experience before authorizing their scientists • and research support staff to conduct • underwater research using scuba, hookah and • surface supplied diving.
The Pursuit of Science • Scientific diving differs from recreational diving • and commercial diving in many ways. The • advancement of science is the single goal. • For many recreational divers, the thrill of breathing • on scuba and enjoying the panoramic view of life • beneath the sea is in itself the end goal of learning • to dive. • Commercial divers are underwater construction • workers, builders and trouble shooters.
Scientific Diver Population • ~4,000 individuals in the U.S. • majority of long-term, career scientific divers (e.g. • federal employees, university professors) in the • 35+ average age category • high turnover of scientific divers at the university • student level (18–34 age category) • no upper age limit for certification, the lower limit • is generally 18 years of age
Locations • subtropical seas • temperate waters • freshwater rivers and lakes • karst formations • polar environments • blue water (open ocean) • submarine canyons • estuaries • offshore platforms Heine, J.N. 1999. Scientific Diving Techniques: A Practical Guide for the Research Diver. Best Publishing, Flagstaff. 225 p.
Early Scientific Diving The first recorded scientific dives were made by Henri Milne-Edward (Sicily) circa 1844 in a commercial diving suit to a depth of 25 ft.
C.K. Tseng • 1944 • Chinese biologist • working at SIO • during WWII • Used Surface-Supplied • Japanese Heavy Gear to • study marine algae in • San Diego Bay • Frank Haymaker • 1947 • Observation of Scripps Canyon using Hard Hat equipment for SIO • researcher, Dr. Francis Shepard
Conrad Limbaugh Andreas Rechnitzer SCUBA comes to Scripps
Diving at Scripps • Scripps was a branch of UCLA • Limbaugh convinced advisor that new Aqualung would be a • valuable tool. • Initially purchased 1 from Rene’s Sporting Goods and taught each • other how to dive. DON’T HOLD YOUR BREATHE! • In 1950, with a second set in tow, arrived at SIO thus initiating • Scripps diving.
Dive Training at Scripps • Initially pretty informal… • The training consisted more of a demonstration than training. • 1951, first official training course developed out of necessity • A diver at another UC campus died in a diving accident • Revelle, President of the UC, mandated more formalized • training. • Many of diving’s fundamental principles; Swim Tests, the • Buddy System, Buddy Breathing, and the “Ditch and Don” • were developed in this process. • 1952 first organized written syllabus was developed.
Scripps and LA County • In 1953, Al Tillman, Bev Morgan, and Ramsey Parks from LA • County Parks and Recreation participated in one of the early • courses. • Developed the first formal diving instruction and certification • program available to the public. • The LA County program became the basis for all future • recreational diving programs. • Limbaugh, Jim Stewart, and Wheeler North assisted the first LA • County Instructor courses.
Jim Stewart • Stewart was an accomplished free- • diver and member of the • Bottomscratchers. • In 1952 , Stewart became a volunteer • at SIO helping Limbaugh with diver • training. • In 1955, Stewart was hired part-time • to assist Dr. Wheeler North with kelp • forest research. • Participated in the first science • diving research cruise as well as • multiple expeditions to Enewitok and • Bikini (atomic tests)
Transition • In 1960, Limbaugh was killed in a cave diving accident • in Cassis, France. • Stewart named to replace Connie as the “Principle Health and • Safety Technologist.” • Changed position title to “Diving Safety Officer.” • As scientific diving became more prominent, Stewart was • fundamental in the formalization and perpetuation of scientific • diver training and operational standards… University Guide for Diving Safety
Scientific Diving Safety Programs • Diving Safety Programs serve a two-fold purpose: • a research support function that assists the • diving scientist with specialized underwater • equipment, advice, and diver support. • a risk management function that protects the • safety and health of the individual scientist, and • the employing organization from excess liability • exposure.
Scientific Diving Entities • research institutions. • public and private universities, museums and • aquaria (predominantly research, education, and • teaching roles). • consulting companies (predominantly contractual • environmental, geological, and archaeological • investigations.
OSHA & Scientific Diving • 1975 - The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and • Joiners of America, supported by the AFL-CIO, • petitioned the Federal Government urging a • standard be issued with respect to all professional • diving operations. • The permanent standard for Commercial Diving • became effective October 20, 1977. • The OSHA Commercial Diving Standard if applied • to Scientific Diving Operations would present a • significant impediment.
The AAUS • Organized in 1977, AAUS was incorporated in the • State of California in 1983. • The Academy submitted arguments to OSHA on • October 15, 1979 citing: • Self regulation and consensual standards for over 20 • years. • And an accident/incidence rate lower than the • Commercial Diving Industry. • After extensive negotiation and Congressional • Hearings, the scientific diving exemption to • commercial diving standards was issued, effective • November 28, 1982.
The Exemption 29 CFR Ch. XVII Subpart T 1910.401 – Labor (OSHA) Defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction and control of a diving program containing at least the following elements: A. Diving Safety Manual B. Diving Control Board
The Exemption Appendix B to Subpart T - Guidelines for Scientific Diving 1. diving control board : majority are active scientific divers - autonomous and absolute authority over program operations; 2. purpose of diving is advancement of science; 3. scientific diver is observer and data gatherer; and, 4. scientific divers use scientific expertise under water.
The AAUS • AAUS is an organization of Organizations • AAUS certifies Scientific Diving Programs • NOT individual divers • The strength of the Academy is this • Organizational Membership (OM)
Scientific Diving Standards • The American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS): publishes standards • for scientific diving certification and operation of scientific diving programs • University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS): research • vessel diving safety standards amplify the AAUS standards for diving from a • research vessel platform • The UNOLS standards for scientific diving are based on the AAUS Scientific • Diving standards • National Science Foundation (NSF): standards for Ice diving • The NSF standards for scientific diving are based on the AAUS Scientific Diving • standards • Other Scientific Diving Standards: • NOAA Diving Program (Dept. of Commerce) • EPA • United States Geological Survey (Dept. of the Interior) • National Park Service • CMAS • European Scientific Diving Committee
Diving Safety • The ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the • individual diver... • Safety is the judgment of acceptability of risk. Risk is a • compound measure of probability and severity of harm to • human health. There are degrees of risk, therefore, degrees • of safety. • estimating risk is a scientific event (an objective and • probabilistic pursuit) • accepting risk is a political activity (a personal or social • judgment) • nothing is absolutely free of risk • Adapted from Lowrance, W.L. 1976