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NCA Group Ratings. Ranked Least Important in 21 st Century. Ranked Most Important in 21 st Century . NCA Credo. Group Rankings. NCA Group Ratings. Lowest Ranked for Use / Enforcement. Highest Ranked for Use/Enforcement . NCA Credo. Group Ratings. Ethics & Moral Reasoning. Chapter 3.

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nca group ratings
NCA Group Ratings

Ranked Least Important in 21st Century

Ranked Most Important in 21st Century

NCA Credo

Group Rankings

nca group ratings1
NCA Group Ratings

Lowest Ranked for Use / Enforcement

Highest Ranked for Use/Enforcement

NCA Credo

Group Ratings

moral reasoning
Moral Reasoning
  • Systematic approach
    • Structured logical arguments
    • Three areas of knowledge and skill needed:
      • Moral context
      • Philosophical foundation
      • Critical thinking
context of moral reasoning
Context of Moral Reasoning
  • Context
    • Decision making
    • Cultural environment
    • Economic Impact
philosophical foundations
Philosophical Foundations
  • Ancient Greece provides moral sense
  • Socratic dialogue



The Republic

  • Athenian Democracy
  • Reason and Wisdom
  • Higher moral “good”
  • One should never do wrong in return, nor mistreat any man, no matter how one has been mistreated by him.” (Crito, 49c)



Virtue Ethics

    • Golden Mean
    • Character
    • Evil



Example of the finding the mean:

Social Drinking








care based ethics
Care-Based Ethics
  • Foundation of world’s major religions
  • Golden Rule
    • Judaism: What is hated unto you, do not to your friend (Talmud)
    • Christianity: 1And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. (Luke 6:31)
    • Buddhism: Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.(Udanavarga5:18)
    • Hinduism: One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires.(AnusasanaParva, CXIII, Verse 8)
    • Islam: “None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” (An-Nawawi's Forty Hadith 13,56)
    • Bahai: Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.(Bahá'u'lláh[35][36])
kant and moral duty
Kant and Moral Duty
  • “Act on that maxim which you will to become a universal law”
    • Categorical Imperative
  • Moral Behavior
  • Deontological Ethics
    • Absolutist
    • Concrete and predictable
    • Short-coming: dilemma between two equal principles
  • John Stuart Mills & Jeremy Betham
    • Mills: “Seek the greatest happiness for the aggregate whole.”
  • Consequence over Ethics
    • Happiness
    • Benefit versus Harm
  • Teleological Base
    • Positive results matter
    • Egoists
social contract
Social Contract
  • Enlightenment Period
    • Reason & science
  • Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacque Rousseau
  • Ethical norms respected if society agrees
rawl s veil of ignorance
Rawl’s Veil of Ignorance
  • John Rawl, A Theory of Justice
    • Utilitarianism
  • Fairness is fundamental idea in concept of justice
  • Cases of fairness
    • Easy = arithmetic fairness
    • Veil of Ignorance
      • Uses “original position” to determine outcomes
  • Two primary principles formulated “behind the veil”
feminist ethics
Feminist Ethics
  • Critiques traditional theories
  • Public versus private domains
  • Bertrand Russell & John Dewey
  • Progressivism
    • Moral agents determine right and wrong based on individual perspectives and values
  • Situationists
critical thinking
Critical Thinking
  • Basis of moral reasoning
  • Consists of:
    • Knowledge
    • Ability to identify problems
    • Identify all relevant information
    • Identify all assumptions
    • Evaluate alternatives and make decisions
sad formula
SAD Formula
  • S = Situational definition
  • A = analysis of situation, application of moral theories
  • D = Decision or ethical judgement