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NCA Group Ratings

NCA Group Ratings

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NCA Group Ratings

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  1. NCA Group Ratings Ranked Least Important in 21st Century Ranked Most Important in 21st Century NCA Credo Group Rankings

  2. NCA Group Ratings Lowest Ranked for Use / Enforcement Highest Ranked for Use/Enforcement NCA Credo Group Ratings

  3. Ethics & Moral Reasoning Chapter 3

  4. Moral Reasoning • Systematic approach • Structured logical arguments • Three areas of knowledge and skill needed: • Moral context • Philosophical foundation • Critical thinking

  5. Context of Moral Reasoning • Context • Decision making • Cultural environment • Economic Impact

  6. Philosophical Foundations • Ancient Greece provides moral sense • Socratic dialogue Socrates

  7. The Republic • Athenian Democracy • Reason and Wisdom • Higher moral “good” • One should never do wrong in return, nor mistreat any man, no matter how one has been mistreated by him.” (Crito, 49c) Plato

  8. Virtue Ethics • Golden Mean • Character • Evil Aristotle

  9. Example of the finding the mean: Social Drinking Middle Ground Excess Deficiency Overdoing Underdoing Virtue

  10. Care-Based Ethics • Foundation of world’s major religions • Golden Rule • Judaism: What is hated unto you, do not to your friend (Talmud) • Christianity: 1And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. (Luke 6:31) • Buddhism: Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.(Udanavarga5:18) • Hinduism: One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires.(AnusasanaParva, CXIII, Verse 8) • Islam: “None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” (An-Nawawi's Forty Hadith 13,56) • Bahai: Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.(Bahá'u'lláh[35][36])

  11. Kant and Moral Duty • “Act on that maxim which you will to become a universal law” • Categorical Imperative • Moral Behavior • Deontological Ethics • Absolutist • Concrete and predictable • Short-coming: dilemma between two equal principles

  12. Utilitarianism • John Stuart Mills & Jeremy Betham • Mills: “Seek the greatest happiness for the aggregate whole.” • Consequence over Ethics • Happiness • Benefit versus Harm • Teleological Base • Positive results matter • Egoists

  13. Social Contract • Enlightenment Period • Reason & science • Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacque Rousseau • Ethical norms respected if society agrees

  14. Rawl’s Veil of Ignorance • John Rawl, A Theory of Justice • Utilitarianism • Fairness is fundamental idea in concept of justice • Cases of fairness • Easy = arithmetic fairness • Veil of Ignorance • Uses “original position” to determine outcomes • Two primary principles formulated “behind the veil”

  15. Delete when printed

  16. Behind the veil

  17. Feminist Ethics • Critiques traditional theories • Public versus private domains

  18. Relativism • Bertrand Russell & John Dewey • Progressivism • Moral agents determine right and wrong based on individual perspectives and values • Situationists

  19. Critical Thinking • Basis of moral reasoning • Consists of: • Knowledge • Ability to identify problems • Identify all relevant information • Identify all assumptions • Evaluate alternatives and make decisions

  20. SAD Formula • S = Situational definition • A = analysis of situation, application of moral theories • D = Decision or ethical judgement