Chapter 40 form and function
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Chapter 40: Form and Function. Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism Physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs. Physical Laws and Animal Form. Physical laws limit the evolution of an organism

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Physical laws and animal form
Physical Laws and Animal Form

  • Physical laws limit the evolution of an organism

  • Physical laws and requirements constrain the shape and size of organisms

Exchange with environment
Exchange with Environment

  • An animal’s cells must be bathed in an aqueous medium

  • Single celled organisms like protists have body plans so that all the layers of cells are bathed in water

Form and function are organized into different levels
Form and Function are organized into different levels

  • Group of specialized cells come together to form tissues

  • Different types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous

  • Tissues are organized into organs and organs are then grouped into organ systems


  • All organisms require chemical energy for growth, repair, regulation and reproduction

  • Bioenergetics is the flow of energy through an animal

  • Animals use food to make ATP and biosynthesis

  • Metabolic rate is sum of all energy requiring biochemical reactions over given time interval


  • Two bioenergetic strategies include endothermic and ectothermic

  • Metabolic rate depends on size of animal

  • BMR (basal metabolic rate) is the metabolic rate of nongrowingendotherm at rest

  • SMR (standard metabolic rate) is metabolic rate of resting, fasting and unstressed ectotherm

Energy budgets
Energy Budgets

  • Different species of animals use energy and materials in food in different ways


  • Internal environment of vertebrates is called interstitial fluid

  • Organisms have to maintain homeostasis or “steady state” in order to survive

  • To cope with environmental fluctuations animals are either regulators or conformers

  • Negative and positive feedback are two mechanisms of homeostasis


  • Thermoregulation is process by which animals maintain their internal temperature

  • Ectotherms gain most of their heat from environment

  • Endotherms can generate their own heat to regulate their temperature

  • Alternate names include poikilotherms and homeotherms

Heat exchange
Heat Exchange

  • Four ways to exchange heat: radiation, evaporation, convection,conduction

  • Five ways to balance heat loss and gain: insulation, circulatory adaptations, cooling by evaporation, behavioral responses, adjusting metabolic heat production

  • Feedback mechanisms are controlled by nerve cells in hypothalamus

Acclimatization and torpor
Acclimatization and Torpor

  • Acclimatization is where animals adapt to changing environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks

  • Mammalian cells use heat- shock proteins to help stop denaturing of proteins

  • Torpor is physiological state used to conserve energy where activity and metabolism is low, three types are hibernation, estivation, and daily