The tutor juggle:1 HOUR JUMPSTART TUTOR TRAINING M.E. McWilliams Academic Assistance and Resource Center Director Stephen F. Austin State University firstname.lastname@example.org
CHAT IT UP • What do you most want to change about your tutor training? • What would perfect tutor training look like?
KNOW WHAT YOU DON’T WANT • Conventional training has equally negative consequences. • Most disturbing is that sometimes tutors begin their work without knowing everything expected of them.
KNOW WHAT YOU WANTAND WHY NEW KIND OF TRAINING
DETERMINE WHO • Requirements in red are talents. You cannot train your presenter to demonstrate these qualities. PRESENTER
DETERMINE WHEN The day before classes begin or Friday if classes begin on a Monday— Every semester. Be ready for these excuses: Still on vacation Required sorority meeting
WELCOME DETERMINE LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR TUTORS What should a tutor be able to do because of your training? • The tutor will create responsive, supportive interpersonal communication. • The tutor will motivate the student to engage in learning. • The tutor will facilitate interactive learning. • The tutor will suggest or model specific ideas for the client to better prepare for assignments and tests. LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE INVOLVE
CHAT IT UP • What are some other possible learning outcomes for your tutors? • Which learning outcomes are most important to you?
WELCOME WEIGHT THEM Spend more time on the domains that: • the tutors say are the hardest to do • the staff observers and clients rate the lowest LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE The hardest to do! Our lowest scores! INVOLVE Examples of assessment tools to retrieve the feedback to determine the above are discussed at end of slideshow.
WELCOME “UNSEQUENCE THEM”=JUGGLE A general sequence does exist: 1. Welcome: Before they can learn they must feel comfortable and happy 2. Motivate: Before they will engage in learning, they have to have a good reason to do so. 3. Involve: This is the bulk of the tutoring session. 4. Learning Strategies: At the end of the session, give them a “take away”—a learning strategy they can employ at home. But. . . the truth is that all four of these objectives are to be deployed at any appropriate moment throughout the session. The tutor is in effect JUGGLING all these balls throughout the session. LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE INVOLVE
WELCOME RESEARCH AND WRITE SCRIPT LINES: INTERPERSONALCOMMUNICATION WHAT TO SAY (OR DO): WHY SAY IT • Feeling good tends to “enhance the ability to think flexibly and with more complexity, thus making it easier to find solutions to problems” (Jensen, 1996,p. 85) • Maslow’s Hierarchy,1943; Hunley & Shaller, 2009, p.26 WOO HOO WELCOME Hello! Smile and handshake Use names
RESEARCH AND WRITE SCRIPT LINES: INTERPERSONALCOMMUNICATION WHAT TO SAY: WHY SAY IT: • Unless the student believes he can do something, the student will not engage in that something. Be a coping modeland testify to the client that the ordinary student (like you) can successfully the master the material. (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2007) • Until students see the correlation between their lives and that of the subjects they study, the information “might as well be about Mars . . .” (Dewey, 1916, p. 342) • “When the client sees that the information is of personal use to him,he is likely to determine to study hard on his own, without being forced.” (Ryan and Deci, 2000, p. 68) • Dewey (1916) noted that one can learn all the parts of the flower but regrettably overlook the wonder of the flower as a whole. MOTIVATE SELL YOUR BUCKET OF CHICKEN If I learned this stuff, you can too! This is really neat stuff! This is stuff you can use!
RESEARCH AND WRITE SCRIPT LINES:INTERACTIVE LEARNING WHAT TO SAY: WHY SAY IT: • The one doing all the work, is the one doing all the learning! (Wong & Wong) • Only by WRESTLING with the conditions of the problem at first hand, seeking and finding his own way out, does he [the student] think. (Dewey, 1916, p.159-160). • Students can often provide correct answers, repeat definitions, and apply formulae while yet not understanding those questions, definitions, and formulae (Pintrich, 1995). • Identify the “illusion of comprehension” (Druckman & Bjork in Svinicki, 2004, p. 117) (loosely related to MacDonald’s fake light bulb, 1994) • The development of effective study skills depends crucially on the learner being able to assess what they know and do not know (National Center for Education). FIND THE FALSE LIGHT BULB Why? Tell me more about that. Explain that back and I’ll see what I’ve forgotten. Can you give an example? ALLOW 7 SECONDS THINK TIME INVOLVE
RESEARCH AND WRITE SCRIPT LINES: LEARNING STRATEGIES WHAT TO SAY: WHY SAY IT: • Don’t say, I’ll worry about it later. Worry Now! (Pauk, 1974) • If you do nothing with new information—don’t think about it, don’t read about it, for the first 24 hours--you will forget 50-70% of that new information. Pashler, H. Et al. (2007). Organizing Learning and Student to Improve Student Learning. • INFORMATION NOT AN INSULT: Pintrich, P.R.and Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in education. • If you can’t explain it to your grandma, you don’t know it! Einstein • We remember 95% of what we teach to others! Dale, E. (1960). Educational media. • Information sticks when it seems funny, pleasant, or familiar. Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school? • GET ON YOUR BIKE • Practice! • Review notes in 24 hours! • Ask your prof! • Study mistakes! • Pretend to teach it! • Memorize with tricks! • Don’t give up! LEARNING STRATEGIES
CHAT IT UP • What else might tutors do to implement learning strategies into a session? • Why might “learning strategies” be a better term to use than “study strategies”?
WELCOME DEFINE OVER-ARCHING THEME: SELF-EFFICACY The most important goal for tutoring—the one that rings all the bells—is to go beyond merely saying to the client, You can do it! Instead, find that moment when you can say to the client, You ARE doing it! LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE INVOLVE You ARE Doing it!
WELCOME PRESENT THE BIG PICTURE: THE TUTOR JUGGLE SELL YOUR BUCKET OF CHICKEN If I learned this stuff, you can too! This is really neat stuff! This is stuff you can use! Ryan and Deci, Wigfield & Eccles, Bandura FIND THE FALSE LIGHT BULB Why? Tell me more about that. Explain that back and I’ll see what I’ve forgotten. Can you give an example? ALLOW 7 SECONDS THINK TIME Druckman & Bjork in Svinicki, MacDonald LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE Our lowest scores! WOO HOO WELCOME Hello! Smile and handshake Use name Jensen, Maslow • GET ON YOUR BIKE • Practice! • Review notes in 24 hours! • Ask your prof! • Study mistakes! • Pretend to teach it! • Memorize with tricks! • Don’t give up! • Smilkstein, Krug, NSSE, Pintrich The hardest to do! INVOLVE You ARE Doing it! sfasu.edu/aarc
BUILDMASTER TUTOR JEOPARDY http://library.sfasu.edu/aarc/tutor-resources/
WELCOME RAMP UP THE PRESENTATION MODEL THE DOMAINS: Door Greetings and Intros names applause for uncertified Tutor testimonies Show and Tell Stinky Cheese Master Tutor Jeopardy Nametag Review WATCH THE CLOCK: • Be selective about the research. Don’t bore them with everything you know. Make choices and they will remember something. Say it all and they remember how long you spoke. • Knowing the names of learning theories is not important. Prepare them to be practitioners not theorists. LEARNING STRATEGIES MOTIVATE INVOLVE
CHAT IT UP • What would the presenter most fear about taking on this responsibility? • What would happen if you used multi-presenters?
ASSESS TRAINING TUTOR TALK
RESOURCES Interpersonal Communication • James, S. D. (2011). College freshmen: Students are stressed and depressed. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/depressed-college-freshmen-rise-report-concludes/story?id=12784100 • Jensen, E. (1996). Brain-based learning. • Kassorla, I. (1985). Go for it! [Audio Recording]. New York: Time Warner Paperbacks. • Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96. • Mehrabian, A.& Ferris, S. (1967). Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 248-252. • Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1983). Getting to yes:Negotiating agreement without giving in. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
RESOURCES MOTIVATION • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. • Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York, NY: MacMillan • Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Random House. • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. • Smilkstein, R. (2003). We’re born to learn! Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=6ZHELyI9XEIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=we're+born+to+learn+smilkstein&source=bl&ots=IpZ-2t_Oy6&sig=5nNUlgYq4hDw63DF6jW6RsBrrqM&hl=en&ei=IFx2TeeTBIzogQfV07XPBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false • Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2007). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. • Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy‑value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68‑81
RESOURCES INTERACTIVE LEARNING • Arum, R. (2011). Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. • Dzubak, C.M. The cognition gap: Sufficient skills for high school but not sufficient for college. Synergy. Retrieved from: http://www.myatp.org/Synergy_1/Syn_12.pdf • MacDonald, R. (1994). The Master tutor. New York: Cambridge Stratford Study Skills Institute. • Pintrich, P. (1995). Understanding self-regulated learning: New Directions for Teaching and Learning
RESOURCES LEARNING STRATEGIES • Ames, C. (1992). Classroom: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271. • Cepeda, N. (2009). Optimizing Distributed Practice. Experimental Psychology 2009; Vol. 56(4):xxx–xxx. pp. 1-11. • Dale, E. (1960). Educational media. • Krug, D. Davis, T.B. & Glover, J.A. (1990). Massed versus distributed repeated reading: A case of forgetting helping recall? Journal of educational psychology, 82 (2), 366-371. • Jaschik, S. Inside Higher Ed. Jan. 31, 2011. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/01/31/colleges_try_to_use_metacognition_to_improve_student_learning • Leamnson, R..(2002). Learning: Your first job. Retrieved from http://www.udel.edu/CIS/106/iaydin/07F/misc/firstJob.pdf • Nissen, T. (1970). Learning and pedagogy. Copenhagan: Munksgaard. • Pauk, W. (1974). How to study in college. Boston:, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Pashler, H. Et al. (2007). Organizing Learning and Student to Improve Student Learning. Retrieved from: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/20072004.pdf • Pintrich, P.R.and Schunk, D.H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall. • Pintrich, P. (1995). Understanding self-regulated learning: New directions for teaching and learning. New York: Jossey-bass. • Smilkstein, R. (2002). We’re born to learn. New York: Corwin Publishers. • Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: a cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for your classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 4.
THANK YOU! The tutor juggle:1 HOUR JUMPSTART TUTOR TRAINING M.E. McWilliams Academic Assistance and Resource Center Director Stephen F. Austin State University email@example.com