Fashion in History: A Global Look Tutor: Giorgio Riello Week 5 Tuesday 28 October 2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fashion in History: A Global Look Tutor: Giorgio Riello Week 5 Tuesday 28 October 2008

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  1. Fashion in History: A Global Look Tutor: Giorgio Riello Week 5 Tuesday 28 October 2008 ‘Worlds with no Fashion? Fashion and Identity in Europe and Asia’

  2. Did Fashion Exist outside Europe? Simmel’s difference between ‘Fashion’ and ‘costume

  3. Did Fashion Exist outside Europe? • What were the conditions for Fashion to exist/emerge also outside Europe? • 2. and secondly, if it existed, when did it exist?

  4. Did Fashion Exist outside Europe? Braudel does not think that extra-European people did not have fashion because they are primitive (Flugel/Simmel) He thinks that their model is about ‘fixity’, rather than ‘fashion’ because they lack the context in which fashion can emerge “The Turks do not dress like us, in various fashions (guise), but all generally in one shape of garments” Antonio Menavino about Turkey in the 1540s

  5. Did Fashion Exist outside Europe? • Critiques to Braudel’s position: • He observed a tiny minority of the population; • 2. The information comes (mostly) from foreigners; • 3. These observers were unable to comprehend the overall ‘clothing system’; • 4. ‘Fashion’ might be defined by different rules Craig Clunas compares sumptuary laws in China and Europe and concludes that China had thriving fashion

  6. Did Fashion Exist outside Europe? • Personal Expression (‘Express yourself’) • Tim Brook in his Confusion of Pleasures describes China as a dynamic and open society • 2. The Urban Context o Fashion • The largest cities in the world were located in Asia and had a complex and sophisticated social structure • 3. Presence of intermediaries • The Indian and Chinese Oceans were key places for commerce

  7. 2. European Fashion and the Extra-European World One of the hypotheses on the ‘birth of fashion’ in Europe is that fashion was the result of an exposure to luxury textiles coming from the Islamic culture, during the Crusades. Marco Polo in the first printed edition of Il Milione

  8. 2. European Fashion and the Extra-European World Is this really a viable hypothesis to explain the birth of fashion? 1. Only if the exotic, the foreign and the different is valued rather than dismissed. Georg Simmel thoughts that this is a characteristic of ‘higher civilizations’ 2. It implies the importance of ‘encounters’. Fashion is not a national phenomenon but the result of connections across space. 3. Fashion is about ‘novelty’, something unexpected, rather than something luxurious.

  9. 2. European Fashion and the Extra-European World Is this really a viable hypothesis to explain the birth of fashion? CRITICISM 1. Unclear who engages with fashion: crusaders? Merchants? Women? 2. There is nothing inherently ‘fashionable’ in silks 3. Why didn’t fashion exist outside Europe?

  10. 3. How ‘Exotic’ was Extra-European Dress?

  11. Silk velvet head dress, 1400-1450 Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, 24/1706 Silk turban, 1400-1450 Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, 24/1864

  12. Liberale da Verona, ‘Death Standing in a Landscape’, in Book of Hours for Dominican Use, Italy, Siena, 1475 , 1445¡V1527/29 .

  13. Andrea Mantegna, Adorazione dei Magi

  14. Mantegna, Adoration

  15. Anonymous Venetian painter, The Reception of the Venetian Ambassadors in Damascus, Venice, 1511. Oil on canvas, 118 x 203 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris

  16. Silk and fur Kaftan belonging to Sultan Mehmed II, c. 1470. Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, 11/20 Cotton Kaftan belonging to Sultan Mehmed II, c. 1470. Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, 11/10

  17. Kaftan, figured silk brocade with metal threads, belonging to Sultan Selim I, c. 1515. Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, 13/42

  18. 4. The Intensification of Contact

  19. Albrecht Dürer, Rhinoceros, woodcut, 1515

  20. The Portuguese in Japan in 1542

  21. Matteo Ricci at 60, 1610.

  22. Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Sultan Mehmet II, dated 25 November 1480. Oil on canvas; 65 x 52 cm. The National Gallery, London.

  23. The portrait of Sultan Mehmet, the Conqueror, ascribed from Sinan Bey. From Sarai Albums.Istanbul, end of fifteenth century.Hazine 2153, folio 10a.

  24. http://www.geocities.com/anahita_whitehorse/ottofemcloth.htmlhttp://www.geocities.com/anahita_whitehorse/ottofemcloth.html

  25. 5. Books of Costume “European illustrators used costume as a means to order an expanding an increasingly unruly image of the world… [by] condensing the world into images” (Wilson, p. 100).

  26. 5. Books of Costume

  27. 5. Books of Costume The Johan van Lynden Book is the oldest ‘Album Amicorum' in the Netherlands. It probably belonged to Johan van Lynden of Hattem and contains poems and song texts in Dutch, French, Latin of about fifty male and female individuals and students and twenty coloured hand-drawn coats of arms collected in Koln and Nijmegen between 1556 and 1578.

  28. 5. Books of Costume Album Amicorum of Michael van Meer, early 17th century http://www.lib.ed.ac.uk/resources/collections/specdivision/botmjan07.shtml

  29. 5. Books of Costume Published 40 books of costumes were published between 1560 and 1645 in Europe, or if we count multiple editions there are over 50 costume books published in the period 1560 to 1610.

  30. 5. Books of Costume Subject matter 1. Personal The ‘Tachtenbuch’ (The book of forms, shapes, fashions) of Matthaus Schwarz (b. 1497) is a collection of 137 drawings of the clothed that he wore during his life. 2. Single places Most books however concentrate on specific localities as in the case of the books by Jorg Praun and Hans Niedermeyer, both from Innsbruck. 3. Large geographies The most famous is the book by Vecellio

  31. from Description De L' Univers, Contenant Les Differents Systemes Du Monde, by Allain Manesson Mallet, published by Jean david Zunner in Paris, 1685. Alain Manesson Mallet (1630 – 1706) was a French cartographer and engineer.. His major publications were Description de L'Univers (1683) in 5 volumes, and Les Travaux de Mars ou l'Art de la Guerre (1684) in 3 volumes

  32. from Modern History: or, the Present State of all Nations, by Thomas Salmon, published by Bettesworth & Hitch, London, 1739.

  33. 5. Books of Costume What did they represent? 1. Costume Published books in particular are collections of costumes. They often present a static view of society 2. They are not photographs Their ethnographic mission is often limited. 3. Moral View They often provide a moral view of the world that they portray.

  34. 5. Books of Costume How were they made? 1. They follow certain style conventions from previous published examples. 2. In certain cases, the artist’s knowledge could be either direct or informed by research. Vecellio: “No one can imagine the difficulty that I’ve encountered in describing these costumes (habiti), many of which cannot have certain knowledge, because of the distance of the place, because of unknown countries, some of which without commerce…” 3. In some cases they were re-printed and published in several languages. An example is Nicolay’s, Voyage into Turkey. 4. Certain images were copied from pattern books. These ‘prototypes’ must have been easily available from artists’ workshops and printshops 5. They circulated and informed taste for future books.

  35. Nicolay, The Navigations, Peregrinations and Voyages Made into Turkey. http://livingpast.com/europ.html Colored version (German edition). It is believed the colourist has mistakenly portrayed her as wearing stockings, rather than trousers.(1585) Married Greek woman from Pera/Galata (French Edition 1568)

  36. 5. Books of Costume How were they made? 1. They follow certain style conventions from previous published examples. 2. In certain cases, the artist’s knowledge could be either direct or informed by research. Vecellio: “No one can imagine the difficulty that I’ve encountered in describing these costumes (habiti), many of which cannot have certain knowledge, because of the distance of the place, because of unknown countries, some of which without commerce…” 3. In some cases they were re-printed and published in several languages. An example is Nicolay’s, Voyage into Turkey. 4. Certain images were copied from pattern books. These ‘prototypes’ must have been easily available from artists’ workshops and printshops 5. They circulated and informed taste for future books.

  37. 5. Books of Costume • What was their use? • Ann Rosalind Jones observes that these were not early modern copies of Vogue! • 2. they could work as a souvenir • 3. as a guide to a society • 4. to compare one’s society • 5. awareness of the world