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  1. War and the Modern Presidency “The Virginia Experiment:” Growing Seeds of Democracy in Four Hundred Years of American History Miller Center of Public Affairs University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA December 7, 2006 Prof. Marc Selverstone Miller Center of Public Affairs University of Virginia

  2. President Franklin D. Roosevelt October 8, 1940

  3. Geena Davis Source: http://tv.yahoo.com

  4. George Washington Source: http://memory.loc.gov

  5. President Harry S. Truman Source: http://www.trumanlibrary.org

  6. Presidential Roles • Chief Economist •Chief Diplomat •Legislative Leader •Party Leader •Chief Executive •Chief of State •Commander in Chief

  7. LBJ Diary Lyndon Johnson Daily Diary August 4, 1964

  8. AmericanPresident.org

  9. I. Historical Background

  10. The Constitution of the United States of America Article II, Section 2 • “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States . . .” Article I, Section 8 •“The Congress shall have the Power To . . . •provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States . . . •To Declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; • “To raise and support Armies . . .” • “To provide and maintain a Navy . . . •“To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; • “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, surpress Insurrections and repel Invasions . . .”

  11. The Constitutional Convention Source: www.pbs.org

  12. Landing at Vera Cruz

  13. Congressional Declarations of War • England, 1812 •Mexico, 1846 •Spain, 1898 •Germany, 1917 •Japan, 1941

  14. II. The Modern Wartime Presidency

  15. President Woodrow Wilson President Woodrow Wilson

  16. SOL 9 – The U.S.Enters World Affairs www.vcdh.virginia.edu/solguide

  17. III. President Franklin D. Roosevelt

  18. FDR Wartime Regulatory Agencies • Office of Emergency Management •Board of Economic Warfare •National War Labor Board •Office of Defense Transportation •War Production Board

  19. January 1, 1939

  20. Presidential Roles • Chief Economist •Chief Diplomat •Legislative Leader •Party Leader •Chief Executive •Chief of State •Commander in Chief

  21. Relevant Themes • Role of the President as Commander in Chief • Relationship Between Foreign and Domestic Policy • Domestic Political Context of Foreign Policymaking • Relationship Between Intelligence and Policymaking • Challenge of Managing the Press • Sheer Complexity of the Presidential Office

  22. WhiteHouseTapes.org www.whitehousetapes.org

  23. President Franklin D. Roosevelt October 25, 1940

  24. President Franklin D. Roosevelt September 27, 1940

  25. Executive Order 9981, July 26, 1948 Source: http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photos/9981a.jpg

  26. The Cold War

  27. Korea, 1950-1953

  28. IV. President Harry S. Truman

  29. Postwar Presidential Deployments • Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon in Vietnam •Ford in Cambodia •Reagan in Lebanon, Libya, and Grenada •Bush 41 in Panama and Somalia •Clinton in Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Sudan, Bosnia, and Kosovo

  30. V. President Dwight D. Eisenhower

  31. VI. President John F. Kennedy

  32. The Executive Committee of the National Security Council October 27, 1962

  33. Sec. Def. Robert McNamara, CJCS Maxwell Taylor, and President John F. Kennedy The White House, October 2, 1963

  34. Atty. Gen. Robert F. Kennedy and President John F. Kennedy The White House, October 29, 1963 Source: www.jfklibrary.org

  35. President John F. Kennedy, Caroline Kennedy, and John F. Kennedy Jr. The White House, November 4, 1963 Source: www.jfklibrary.org

  36. VII. President Lyndon B. Johnson Source: www.lbjlib.utexas.edu

  37. President Lyndon B. Johnson January 31, 1964 Source: www.lbjlib.utexas.edu

  38. Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, Michael Schwerner http://www.crmvet.org/

  39. U.S.S. Maddox August 3-6, 1964 Source: www.history.navy.mil

  40. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Robert S. McNamara The White House, July 2, 1965

  41. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and President Lyndon B. Johnson The White House, July 7, 1965 Source: www.lbjlib.utexas.edu

  42. VIII. President Richard M. Nixon Source: www.lbjlib.utexas.edu

  43. President Richard Nixon and H.R. (Bob) Haldeman December 21, 1970 Source: www.history.navy.mil

  44. President Richard M. Nixon and Henry A. Kissinger August 3, 1972 Source: www.lbjlib.utexas.edu