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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Many molecules important to living organisms some are quite small----> water many important ones are very large ----> macromolecules 4 major types found in living organisms : carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids

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organic chemistry
  • Many molecules important to living organisms
    • some are quite small----> water
    • many important ones are very large ---->macromolecules
    • 4 major types found in living organisms:
      • carbohydrates
      • lipids
      • proteins
      • nucleic acids
Living things are composed of organic molecules, which means that they contain carbon
    • carbon has four electrons in outer shell which can bond with other atoms
    • carbon can be linked to other carbons or atoms such as hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and nitrogen(N)
    • long links of these carbons can form into chains or rings
    • Some organic molecules ONLY contain linked carbons and hydrogen ---->hydrocarbons (ex: methane)
    • living organisms tend to be composed of very long and unreactive carbon chains (unlike methane, which is very reactive!)
In organic chemistry, molecules with similar properties are grouped together
    • These all have similar groups of atoms, and these groups of atoms are called functional groups
    • Functional groups can provide physical and chemical properties such as polarity and acidity (ex; carboxyl, -COOH, is a weak acid)
    • Most reactions in living organisms involves the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another
    • The following is a list of common functional groups
      • OHHydroxyl
      • COCarbonyl
      • COOHCarboxyl
      • NH2Amino
      • SHSulfhydryl
      • PO4 Phosphate
      • CH3Methyl
Construction of Macromolecules
    • many macromolecules are polymers, which means that they are constructed of many linked identical or similar subunits
    • How are macromolecules made? Remove an OH from one molecule, and an H from another molecule
      • this requires energy
      • it is called dehydration synthesis (do you see the water above?!)
      • in living organisms, enzymes assist in these reactions
    • Macromolecules are disassembled in the opposite way, by adding a water molecule (OH added to one, H to another subunit)
      • this releases energy
      • reactions of this type are called hydrolysis