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This section is about: How the voyages of Columbus led to the colonization of the Americas. Other explorers, including Magellan, whose expedition circumnavigated the globe. Ch. 16: Section I: Conquests in the Americas (Pages 358-364) Replica of the Santa Maria E
You already know the information and the picture that’s on pages 358/359, but let’s look at anyway. And, on the timeline, look at the middle and end and what we’re up to in this Unit. Page 360: Main Ideas – What about Columbus and Magellan? Columbus will probably always be a controversial figure in history. Why? E
Europeans were looking for better ways to get riches in _ _ _ _. Improvements in navigation and shipbuilding made explorers want to find better (faster) ways to get there. The Voyages of Columbus 1 Cristoforo Colombo? (best guess) E
Christopher Columbus was a skilled sailor and organizer who wanted to find a new route to the riches of Asia. Educated people (including Columbus) knew the earth was round, so he thought if he sailed west, he’d reach Asia. He finally convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to pay for his attempt. He made 2 mistakes: He thought the earth was smaller than it is. He thought the earth had more land than water ……………………………… A Route West 2 E
There’s a globe on page 364 in our books we should look at. This globe was made in 1492, so people must have known. What was probably missing? E
Columbus left Spain on August 3rd, 1492. They stopped at the Canary Islands for supplies and some repairs They left there Sept. 6th. There were 90 crew members on the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria (C). We still have the log Columbus kept, so we know some things about the trip. Life on ships was tough – constant work of maintenance and repairs, pumping water out of the ships, cooking when you could (but bad food), sleep wherever, etc…. The First Journey 3 E
October 12th, 1492: LAND: what’s called the West Indies because he thought he was in _ _ _ _ _. And he called the indigenous (native) people __________. The first island he landed on (San Salvador) had the Taino people, who had a pretty organized society of their own. They explored a while more (Hispaniola, Haiti, the Dominican Republic). When he went back to Spain, Columbus brought some Taino back with him (a few survived the trip) and a little bit of gold. Columbus ended up making 3 more trips, trying to settle the islands and look for gold – he even forced all Taino males over 14 to look for it (they didn’t find much) Finding New Lands 4 E
Columbus meant there would be contact now between these peoples – which meant many changes for the Americas. Europeans liked America’s natural Resources and the money they made off them. But Europeans devastated the native population. When Columbus landed: 40 million Native Americans. 80 years later: 3-4 million. Most died from diseases the Europeans brought over: measles, smallpox, tetanus, etc… The Native Americans had no natural defense against them. Impact of Columbus’s Voyages E
Spain and Portugal had that Treaty of Tordesillas – so you know they both wanted to explore what they felt was there's. Other European Explorers E
1500: Pedro Alvarez Cabral (Portugal) sailed across the Atlantic and landed at “The Island of the True Cross” (Brazil). This then became a “check point” for sailors wishing to explore beyond this area. Cabral Sails for Portugal E
An Italian Navigator named Vespucci also made a couple of trips to the Americas. He’s probably the first European at the Amazon River, and then at Trinidad, Venezuela, and Haiti. Portugal sponsored his second trip – where he went as far as Patagonia and Argentina. It’s then that people realized that this was not Asia – it was “a new world.” This new world was named after him – we’re still named after him today - you live in the United States of Vespucci America’s Namesake 5 Okay: they decided to use his first name: Amerigo E
Vasco Nunez de Balboa explored around Panama. Natives told him he’d find gold across the mountains. After 3 weeks of following some trails, he was told if he climbed the next mountain, he’d see a great sea. He called the water “the South Sea.” We now call it the Pacific Ocean. He claimed it all for Spain and found his gold, and some pearls. Discovery of the Pacific 6 E
Another explorer was named Ferdinand Magellan. His idea was to try and find a passageway across this new world – some kind of river or waterway. He also wanted to prove the Spice Islands were west of the Treaty of Tordesillas – giving those riches to Spain and not to Portugal. And, of course, he should get a share of those profits. Around the World 7 E
1519: Magellan left with 5 ships and 250 men. When he hit South America, he kept heading south - looking for rivers to get through/across South America. About a year later they reached the southern tip of South America – what we now call the Straits of Magellan (an area with rough seas). When they got to the other side, they realized they were in a new body of water – a “peaceful” one. They called this new Ocean: The Pacific Ocean. They kept sailing west – hoping to find Asia. ………… Magellan’s Journey 8 E
After stopping at Guam for supplies, they continued toward the Spice Islands. • While stopping in the Philippine Islands, there was a fight with the natives. • Magellan was killed. • They now only had 2 ships left, but kept going. • Then, some Portuguese took one of the two ships. • Finally, in 1522 (three years later), one ship returned to Spain (filled with spices though). 9 E
For the first time, someone had circumnavigated the globe. This was the beginning of mercantilism: an economic system where governments try to make money off the lands they control. These countries try to have a favorable “balance of trade” with their lands and try to set up monopolies. Europeans saw the Americas as lands to make money off of (lots of raw materials and natural resources). Part of this later was that if you lived in America and wanted to buy something, you had to get it from your homeland government. The Growth of Mercantilism 10 Finish the rest on your own E
This is the last slide for today Make sure page "E" is completed E