CHAPTER The Progressive Era 17 Overview Time Lines 1 The Origins of Progressivism SECTION 2 Women in Public Life SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
THEMES IN CHAPTER 17 Economic Opportunity Women in America Constitutional Concerns CHAPTER The Progressive Era 17 HOME “I believe in democracy because it releases the energies of every human being.” President Woodrow Wilson
What do you know? • What does the word progressive mean to you? Read the quote above and answer the following: • What did Wilson mean when he said democracy “releases the energies” of the people? • What does the “release of energy” suggest about what might happen during the Progressive Era? CHAPTER The Progressive Era 17 HOME “I believe in democracy because it releases the energies of every human being.” President Woodrow Wilson
1905Niagara Convention promotes militant pursuit of African-American rights. 1890Congress passes Sherman Antitrust Act. 1909NAACP is founded. Payne-Aldrich Tariff is passed. 1912Sixteenth Amendment creates federal income tax. 1913Seventeenth Amendment provides for direct election of senators. 1917Congress passes Eighteenth Amendment outlawing alcoholic beverages. U.S. enters World War I. 1919Congress passes Nineteenth Amendment, which grants women the vote. CHAPTER Time Line 17 HOME The United States
1891Construction of the Trans-Siberian railroad across Russia begins. 1895Italian Guglielmo Marconi invents radio telegraphy. 1900The Commonwealth of Australia is created. 1905Albert Einstein publishes papers on special theory of relativity and particle theory of light. 1914World War I begins in Europe. 1916Mexican revolutionary “Pancho” Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico. CHAPTER Time Line 17 HOME The World
Learn About political, economic, and moral roots of progressivism. To Understand how progressive reforms changed modern America. SECTION 1 The Origins of Progressivism HOME
SECTION 1 The Origins of Progressivism HOME Key Idea Social and economic changes during the late 19th century create broad reform movements in American society.
PROGRESSIVE REFORMS SECTION 1 The Origins of Progressivism HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some examples of political or professional groups that campaigned for the reforms shown? Economic American Socialist Party Muckrackers Moral WCTU Anti-Saloon League Political National Consumers’ League National Child Labor Committee Social Welfare YMCA Salvation Army
SYNTHESIZING In what ways might Illinois, Wisconsin, and Oregon all be considered trailblazers in progressive reform? THINK ABOUT • legislative and election reforms at the state level • the leadership of William U’Ren and Robert La Follette • Governor Altgeld’s appointment of Florence Kelley as chief inspector of factories for Illinois SECTION 1 The Origins of Progressivism HOME 1 Section Assessment
FORMING OPINIONS Imagine you are a muckraking journalist in the early 1900s. A magazine publisher has asked you to submit a list of story ideas for upcoming issues. What wrongdoings would you like to probe? THINK ABOUT • Ida M. Tarbell’s articles on the Standard Oil Company • the targets of political, economic, and moral reformers • topics that might require government reform SECTION 1 The Origins of Progressivism HOME 1 Section Assessment
Learn About women’s growing participation in work, education, politics, and reform. To Understand how women’s lives changed in the early 20th century. SECTION 2 Women in Public Life HOME
SECTION 2 Women in Public Life HOME Key Idea Many of the social and economic changes that give rise to progressivism lead women into public life as reformers and workers.
White-collar Workers Farmwomen Domestic Workers Factory Workers SECTION 2 Women in Public Life HOME 2 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What are some details about working women in the late 1800s? WOMEN WORKERS: LATE 1800s Domestic work and farm labor Servants, cooks, laundresses, maids. Often African Americans or immigrants. Tobacco workers, garment trade, manufacturing. Often immigrants or children of immigrants. Stenographers, typists, bookkeepers, teachers. Required high school or business degree; White, native-born, middle-class women.
ANALYZING ISSUES What women and movements during the Progressive Era helped dispel the stereotype of submissive, nonpolitical women? THINK ABOUT • new work and educational opportunities for women • new roles women played in public life • the suffrage movement SECTION 2 Women in Public Life HOME 2 Section Assessment
ANALYZING MOTIVES Explain why women participated in each of the following reform movements: improving education, promoting housing reform, correcting labor abuses, pushing for food and drug laws, winning the right to vote. THINK ABOUT • the problems that each social reform is trying to remedy • how women benefited from each SECTION 2 Women in Public Life HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About Theodore Roosevelt’s domestic agenda and policies. To Understand the reforms of Roosevelt’s administration. SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal HOME
SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal HOME Key Idea Theodore Roosevelt pursues a reform agenda known as the Square Deal. His energetic style contributes to the emergence of the modern presidency.
Solution Problem 1902 coal strike Federal arbitration Northern Securities Company’s monopoly Supreme Court’s dissolution of the Northern Securities Company Unsafe meat processing Passage of the Meat Inspection Act Exploitation of the environment Legislation passed to protect the environment SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal HOME 3 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING How were the following problems solved during Roosevelt’s presidency?
SYNTHESIZING In what ways do you think the progressive belief in using experts played a role in shaping Roosevelt’s reforms? THINK ABOUT • Roosevelt’s use of experts to help him tackle political, economic, or environmental problems • how experts’ findings affected legislative action SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal HOME 33 Section Assessment
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS How did Theodore Roosevelt expand the role of the federal government? SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal HOME 3 Section Assessment
Learn About the policies of the Taft administration. To Understand the growing conflict between progressive reform and business interests. SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft HOME
SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft HOME Key Idea William H. Taft pursues a more cautious progressive program during his one term as president.
Signed Payne-Aldrich Tariff amid public outcry. Returned reserved land to public sale. Fired Pinchot. Supported Joseph Cannon. Speaker of the House of Representatives contributed to split in the Republican Party. SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft HOME 4 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What are the causes or actions that Taft took that made people question his leadership? CAUSES OR ACTIONS: RESULT: Taft’s Difficulties In Office
HYPOTHESIZING What if Roosevelt had won another term in 1912? Speculate on how this might have affected the future of progressive reform. THINK ABOUT • Roosevelt’s policies that Taft did not support • the power struggles within the Republican party • Roosevelt’s perception of presidential leadership SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft HOME 4 Section Assessment
FORMING OPINIONS Both Roosevelt and Taft resorted to mudslinging during the 1912 presidential campaign. Do you approve or disapprove of negative campaign tactics? THINK ABOUT • Roosevelt’s and Taft’s name-calling • how you’ve reacted to negative campaign ads you’ve seen on television SECTION 4 Progressivism Under Taft HOME 4 Section Assessment
Learn About Woodrow Wilson and his approach to reform. To Understand the victories and defeats for progressivism during his administration. SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom HOME
SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom HOME Key Idea Woodrow Wilson claims the presidency as a progressive leader and establishes a strong reform agenda.
Federal Trade Act sets up Federal Trade Commission to investigate unfair business practices • Clayton Antitrust Act strengthens the Sherman Antitrust Act • African-American delegation confronts Wilson on his segregation policies • NAWSA protests on Wilson’s inauguration day • Federal Reserve Act divides nation into 12 regions, each headed by a federal reserve bank • Suffragists picket the Democratic Party convention 1914 1916 1913 SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom HOME 5 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some of the key events related to progressivism during Wilson’s first term?
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Wilson said, “Without the watchful . . . resolute interference of the government, there can be no fair play between individuals and . . . the trust.” How does this statement reflect Wilson’s approach to reform? THINK ABOUT • government’s responsibility to the public • the passage of two key antitrust measures during Wilson’s administration SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom HOME 5 Section Assessment
DEVELOPING HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE If you were a suffragist in the early 1900s, which organization would you have joined—the National American Woman Suffrage Association or the National Woman’s Party? THINK ABOUT • Catt’s strategy to win the vote • Alice Paul’s approach to achieving suffrage • the National Woman’s Party’s protest at the 1916 Democratic Party convention SECTION 5 Wilson’s New Freedom HOME 5 Section Assessment
17 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. What were the four goals that various progressive reform movements struggled to achieve? 2. What kinds of state labor laws resulted from progressives’ lobbying to protect workers? 3. In the 1890s, what job opportunities were available to uneducated women without industrial skills? Who typically filled these positions? 4. Give two examples of women’s national organizations committed to social activism and briefly describe their progressive missions. 5. What scandalous practices did Upton Sinclair expose in his novel The Jungle? How did the American public, Roosevelt, and the Congress respond?
17 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. What precedent did Roosevelt set when he helped mediate the 1902 coal strike? 7. As a progressive, how did Taft compare with Roosevelt, his predecessor? 8. Why could Wilson claim a mandate to broaden the government’s role in social reform, based on the popular vote in the 1912 presidential election? 9. How did the Clayton Antitrust Act benefit labor? 10. Cite two examples of social welfare legislation that Wilson opposed during his presidency and the arguments he used to defend his position.