Fiber Optics & Electronics
1 / 37

Fiber Optics & Electronics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Fiber Optics & Electronics. Security. Speed. A utomatic S ource T ransfer < 8 Cycles < 150ms. Build an asset. Fiber has a 20 year + life Any excess fiber can be leased or sold. Fiber Optic Glass Types. Multimode Fiber Large Core most common 62.5um Only good for < 4KM

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Fiber Optics & Electronics' - elia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


Automatic Source Transfer

< 8 Cycles

< 150ms

Build an asset

  • Fiber has a 20 year + life

  • Any excess fiber can be leased or sold

Fiber optic glass types
Fiber Optic Glass Types

  • Multimode Fiber

    • Large Core most common 62.5um

    • Only good for < 4KM

  • Single Mode Fiber

    • ITU-T G.652-Zero Dispersion around 1310 nm\

    • Supports CWDM and DWDM and Standard Ethernet

  • Dispersion Compensated Fiber

    • ITU-T G.655-Zero Dispersion around 1550 nm

    • Supports DWDM and Standard Ethernet @1550 nm

    • Support Long Spans 50 KM+

Fiber optic types
Fiber Optic Types

Loose Tube Fiber

  • Commonly used in lashed or under ground deployments.

  • Has very little internal support.

  • Fiber loose in buffer tubes to allow for temperature and moisture change.

    Armored Fiber

  • Loose tube fiber with corrugated steel Armor

  • Must be grounded

Fiber optic types1
Fiber Optic Types

  • ADSS(All-Dielectric Self-Supporting)

    • Support and span length engineered into fiber

    • No grounding requirements

    • Installed using Pulleys

Dead End with Slack

ADSS Minimum Bend Radius

To arrive at a working bend radius for cable installation, multiply 20 times (20 x) the cable outside diameter.


Cable Diameter = 0.46 in (11.8 mm)

20 x 0.46 in = 9.2 in (177 mm)

Minimum Working Bend Radius = 9.2 in (17.7 cm)

To find the minimum diameter requirement for pull wheels or rollers, simply double the minimum working bend radius:

ADSS Tensions

  • As temperature increases ADSS tension will also increase.

  • This is opposite of ACSR (conductor)

  • Incorrect tension can damage fiber over time

Adss flat drop options
ADSS Flat Drop Options

Single mode starts at $.25/foot

Fiber optic types2
Fiber Optic Types

Ribbon Fiber

  • Efficient packaging of higher fiber counts

  • Lightweight and easy to handle during installation

  • Specialized Splicers to splice 12 Fiber simultaneously

Fiber optic types3
Fiber Optic Types

  • Optical Ground Wire (OPGW)

    • Fiber optics engineered into ground wire(Shield)

    • Wire and Fiber must be Pre-engineered for access of fiber optics( No access mid span)

    • Lower cost than underground

Fiber optic splicers
Fiber Optic Splicers

Core Alignment Splicer

  • Uses Servos and Camera to align core

  • Very precise low loss splice

  • Electrical Arc fuses Glass

  • Must be cleaved

  • V Groove Splicer

    • Less Precise

    • Lower cost to purchase and maintain

    • Must be cleaved

Splice enclosures
Splice Enclosures

  • Dome enclosures

    • High Capacity enclosure

    • Customizable using grommets

    • Splice trays separate

    • Typically used for butt connections

  • Low Count enclosures

    • Compact Size

    • Low splice capacity

    • Inline or Butt splices

Fiber optics attachment methods1
Fiber Optics Attachment Methods

  • ADSS

    • Dead Ends

  • Used to make high angle turns

  • Must use for slack storage

  • Creates Shear points


  • Supports fiber between dead ends

  • Line angle limitation < 20 degrees

  • Some models can be used in pulling short spans

1. Keeper

2. Cushion Inserts (With or Without Grit)

3. Captured Bolt and Washer (Captured with Grommet)

4. Lock Nut

5. Anchor Shackle with Eye-nut (Optional not shown)

6. Structural Reinforcing Rods (optional, not shown)

Fiber optics attachment methods2
Fiber Optics Attachment Methods

  • Lashed Fiber

  • Fiber lashed to steel carrier

  • Must be grounded

  • Can not be installed in power space

Fiber optic connectors
Fiber Optic Connectors

  • SC (Subscriber Connector)

    • Square connector

    • Push-Pull snap

  • LC (Lucent/little connector)

    • Small high density

    • Snap fit

    • Used on Lasers(XFP/SFP)

  • ST (Straight Tip)

    • Round

    • Twist lock

    • Common in Sub Stations

  • UPC (Ultra Physical Contact) polish style of fiber optic ferrules

    • Standard for most applications

  • APC (Angled Physical Contact)

    • Has Lower lightwave reflectance

    • Used in RF optical applications

Fiber optic architecture
Fiber Optic Architecture

  • Active

    • One Fiber One Customer

    • Bandwidth not shared

    • Requires high fiber counts

  • Passive

    • One Fiber 32 to 64 Customers

    • Requires optical Splitters

    • Bandwidth is Shared

Non Powered

Optical splitter

Fiber technologies
Fiber Technologies

  • Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network)

  • Based on older Time Division Multiplexing T1-T3 Technology

  • Poor bandwidth Efficiency(Protection Path No bandwidth)Limited bandwidth sizes

  • Sub 50ms protection

  • High Deployment cost

Active Path

Reserved path

No activity

Fiber technologies1
Fiber Technologies

  • Ethernet

    • Low Cost Deployment

    • Flexible bandwidth rates

    • Sub 50ms protection without stranding bandwidth

    • Mesh and Ring Topologies

    • Easily Scalable

Active Path

Secondary path

Active Path

Dwdm dense wavelength division multiplexing
DWDM(Dense Wavelength division multiplexing)

  • DWDM

  • Multiplex up to 160 channels of bandwidth on 2 fibers

  • Capable of long distance communications

  • Wavelength sizes up to 100Gb

  • Can use a digital wrapper(OTN) to encapsulate many types of data and maintain packet quality

  • Most systems do not have protection

Fiber technologies2
Fiber Technologies

Standard Ethernet






Ethernet network design
Ethernet Network Design

  • Layer 2 (Facts)1. Switching determined by MAC address database 2. If Packet Collision occurs, packet randomly retries

    3. Packet Broadcast transverses all switches on domain

    4. Vlans provide segmentation of domain

    5. Vlans also allow for security and network traffic flow management

Network design layer 2 hybrid example
Network Design Layer 2(Hybrid)Example




Layer 3 Router

IPs terminated on Router

Vlan 10=

Vlan 20=

Vlan 30=

Vlan 40=

29 usable IPs per Vlan

Layer 2 Switch

Ethernet Ring Block

G. 803.2


Vlan 10 Sub A

Vlan 20 Sub B

Vlan 30 Sub C

Vlan 40 Sub D

Ethernet protection
Ethernet Protection

ITU G.8032 provides a method of ethernet protection while preventing loops.

Master node blocks traffic on one interface of ethernet ring

Failover achieved in less than 50ms

Many derivatives of this technology that are proprietary(Nodes must be of same Manufacture and same Firmware)

Ethernet network design1
Ethernet Network Design

Layer 3 (Facts)

1. Network Control by routing IP address

2. No problems controlling Broadcast domains

3. Control Services and bandwidth based on IP subnets

4. Ring and Mesh redundancy available

5. Traffic flooding and storming easy controlled

6. Most Layer 3 devices support layer 2

Network design layer 3
Network Design Layer 3

Traffic controlled by static or Dynamic routing

Layer 2 Ring



MESH Topology


Layer 3 Switch/Router

IPs terminated on Router

Vlan 10=

Vlan 20=

Vlan 30=

Vlan 40=

2 usable IPs per segment

Ethernet Ring Block

G. 803.2


Mpls m ulti p rotocol l abel s witching

  • MPLS packets transverse fiber node based on shortest path and label

  • MPLS allows transport of ATM, Sonet and Ethernet

  • VPLS (Virtual Private Lan Service) allow for layer 2 type connectivity with layer 3 controls

  • While running MPLS switch processor and QOS are easily controlled per vpls instance

  • Availability of complex traffic engineering


Traffic controlled by Labels

VPLS creates layer 2 connectivity

Layer 2 Ring


MPLS Restores




Layer 3 Switch/Router

Ethernet Ring Block

G. 803.2

Fiber Cut


Test equipment
Test Equipment


optical time-domain reflectometer

  • Used to test quality and length

  • Shows projected fiber loss

  • Find fiber optic breaks

Test equipment1
Test Equipment

OTDR Output

Test equipment2
Test Equipment

  • Single-mode/Multimode Loss Test Kit

  • Measure true loss of fiber

  • Fiber identification

  • Certify Fiber for Sale/IRU

  • Optical Fiber Identifier

  • Fiber Identification

  • Power Meter and Direction

Benefits of iec 61850
Benefits of IEC-61850

  • Features no other SCADA protocol has had before...

  • Self-description and browsers

  • Structured data

  • Device models, not data points

  • Capability for access security

  • Fast peer-to-peer communications

  • Dramatic reduction of necessary wiring

  • Powerful reporting features

  • A wide choice of lower layers

What to consider
What to consider ??

  • What is the Purpose of the Network ?

  • What is the necessary capacity ?

  • How critical is the DATA transport ?

  • What types of DATA do I wish to transport ?

  • What is the future plans for the Network ?

  • Will We transport public DATA ?

  • What security levels do I need ??

Questions ?

Thank You

Billy Wise